FREEMAN, Milton M.R. and Lee FOOTE, 2009 Inuit, Polar Bears and Sustainable Use, Edmonton, CCI Press, 252 pages.
William M. Adams
Department of Geography, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EN, U.K
Résumé | Extrait
Hunting of animals, especially large mammals, for sport is long established, but controversial. On the one hand, such hunting awakens concerns about cruelty and the rights and welfare of hunted animals among critics of hunting. On the other, hunting has a long history of co-evolution, shaped by concern for the conservation of species. One source of the modern conservation movement lies in the concern of big game hunters about their quarry, e.g., the self-styled “penitent butchers” who founded the Society for the Preservation of the Wild Fauna of the Empire in 1903 (Adams 2004). Sport hunters often argue that their activities contribute to the protection of wildlife habitat, or the persistence of “charismatic” species that might otherwise go extinct. Increasingly, this argument turns on the potential for the money spent by hunters to provide incomes for poor people who live alongside wild animals. There is, it is claimed, the potential for win-win-win outcomes, where hunters get their sport, local people receive benefits, and big fierce animals persist in the wild (Dickson et al. 2009).
This area of “conservation hunting” is explored in Inuit, Polar Bears and Sustainable Use. Conservation hunting is defined as “a form of sustainable recreational hunting that provides conservation benefits to the targeted wildlife population and social and economic benefits to local rural communities” (p. 46). The book derives from a conference in Edmonton, Canada in 2004, and draws on subsequent research projects. It offers an extended research-based reflection on the decision by the United States government to list the polar bear as “threatened” under the Endangered Species Act. The polar bear is a classic “flagship species” (Leader-Williams and Dublin 2007) and is claimed as an animal of global concern. At the same time, it is an animal of its place, deeply intertwined in the history and culture of Arctic peoples, and living on land that they claim and, in some regions (Canada and Greenland), over which they have a measure of rights. This gives the question of hunting its considerable depth and complexity.
This book provides an excellent review of the sustainability of polar bear hunting in the Arctic and its cultural, social, and economic context. Its scope is limited to the New World Arctic, particularly Canada. It includes 18 scholarly chapters, rich in both qualitative and empirical data. The overall style is academic, although all the chapters are readable and would be accessible to an interested lay person. The book is divided into three sections. The first one addresses the economics of hunting (chapters 1-5). It explores the economic benefits from hunting and does a good job of comparing local subsistence hunting and revenues from sport hunting by wealthy clients, mostly from the United States. The allocation of quotas is...
|Auteur :||William M. Adams|
|Ouvrage recensé :||FREEMAN, Milton M.R. and Lee FOOTE, 2009 Inuit, Polar Bears and Sustainable Use, Edmonton, CCI Press, 252 pages.|
|Revue :||Études/Inuit/Studies, Volume 35, numéro 1-2, 2011, p. 295-297|
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