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Géographie physique et Quaternaire

Volume 52, numéro 1, 1998, p. 91-105

Direction : André G. Roy (directeur)

Rédaction : Pierre J. H. Richard (rédacteur en chef)

Éditeur : Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal

ISSN : 0705-7199 (imprimé)  1492-143X (numérique)

DOI : 10.7202/004762ar

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Article

Late Quaternary stratigraphy, chronology, and depositional processes on the slope of S.E. Baffin Island, detrital carbonate and Heinrich events: Implications for onshore glacial history

John T. Andrews

M. Kirby

Anne E. Jennings

D. C. Barber

Abstract

In order to describe ice sheet/ocean interactions at the NE margin of the Laurentide Ice Sheet over 40 radiocarbon dates have been obtained on foraminifera from nine, 2.5 to 11 m piston cores from the slope of SE Baffin Island. The cores were collected off Cumberland Sound and north of Hudson Straitfrom 750 to 1 510 m waterdepth. Rates of sediment accumulation varied between 20 and 40 cm/ky. Six cores contain high-resolution records of events during Marine Isotope Stage (MIS) 2 and parts of 1 and 3, whereas three cores have core top dates of ≥30 ka and thus provide information on MIS 3 and possibly 4/5. The cores include three main facies: Lithofacies A - yellowish/buff detrital carbonate-rich sediment, also referred to as Detrital Carbonate (DC-) events; Lithofacies B - olive-green detrital carbonate-poor sediment; and Lithofacies C - a black sedimentary unit. The lithofacies represent changes in glacial sources, ice sheet proximity, and processes of deposition. We conclude that there are DC- events correlative with Heinrich events H-1, H- 2, and H-4 in the North Atlantic; however, we find no compelling evidence for a DC-layer during H-3 (ca. 27 ± ka). There are three to four distinct DC- events after H-4 (ca.35 ± ka) but their exact ages are difficult to determine. Grain-size spectra and X-radiographs show that the DC-sediments are stratified to massive silty-clays with little sand, but generally have higher sand percentages at the base. DC-layers were deposited in part from turbidity currents, melting of icebergs, and rain-out of fine-grained silts and clays. In contrast, ice distal sediments in the eastern North Atlantic recorded H-events as an abrupt increase in ice rafted sand-size particles. In our study area, H-layer thicknesses vary from 0 and 70 cm for H-1 and 20 to 90 cm for H-2; H-4 is ≥60 to 100 cm thick. Over the total length of our records, the sedimentary conditions have been dominated by hemipelagic deposition (lithofacies B), implying that those times when ice reached the shelf (lithofacies A and C) have been short.

Résumé

Stratigraphie, chronologie et mise en place des sédiments sur le talus continental du sud-est de l’île de Baffin, épisodes de dépôt de roches carbonatées détritiques et de Heinrich, au Quaternaire supérieur : implications pour l’histoire glaciaire terrestre

Plus de 40 datations au radiocarbone, obtenues sur les foraminifères issus de carottes de 2,5 à 11 m en provenance du talus continental du SE de l'ïle de Baffin, ont servi à décrire les interactions entre l'inlandsis et l'océan à la limite NE de l'Inlandsis laurentidien. Les taux d'accumulation de sédiments variaient entre 20 et 40 cm/ka. Six carottes contiennent un enregistrement haute résolution du stade isotopique 2 et, en partie, des stades 1 et 3, et trois carottes ont des dates maximales ≥30 ka, ce qui éclaire les stades 3 et, peut-être, 4/5. Les carottes comprennent trois principaux faciès : le lithofaciès A est riche en roches carbonatées détritiques chamois jaunâtre (DC-events ou épisodes de CD) ; le lithofaciès B est pauvre en roches carbonatées détritiques olive ; le lithofaciès C est une unité sédimentaire noire. Les faciès reflètent les changements dans l'origine des glaces, la proximité de l'inlandsis et les processus de mise en place. Les auteurs en concluent que certaines épisodes de CD sont corrélatifs aux épisodes de Heinrich (H-events) H-1, H-2 et H-4 en Atlantique Nord. Après H-4 (vers 35 ± ka), l'âge est difficile à déterminer. Les couches de CD ont en partie été déposées à partir de courants de turbidité, de la fonte des icebergs et de la pluie de limon et d'argile à grains fins. Au contraire, les sédiments distaux de l'est de l'Atlantique Nord ont enregistré des épisodes H comme des accroissements soudains de particules de la grosseur des sables glaciels. Dans la région à l'étude, l'épaisseur des couches de H varient de 0-70 cm (H-1) à 20-90 cm (H-2) ; H-4 varient de ≥60 à 10 cm. Les conditions de mise en place des lithofaciès ont surtout été de nature hémipélagique (B), laissant supposer que les moments où la glace a atteint le plateau continental ont été de courte durée (A et C).

Zusammenfassung

Stratigraphie, Chronologie und Ablagerungsprozesse im späten Quartär auf dem Hang der SO-Baffin-Insel, Episoden der Ablagerung von Schutt-, Karbonat- und Heinrich-Gestein: Implikationen für die glaziale Küstengeschichte

Um die Interaktionen von Eisdecke und Ozean am NO-Rand der laurentischen Eisdecke zu beschreiben, hat man über 40 Kohlenstoffdatierungen auf Foraminiferen von neun 2,5 bis 11m tiefen Bohrkernen vom Hang der SO-Baffin-Insel durchgeführt. Die Raten der Sediment-Akkumulation variierten zwischen 20 und 40 cm/ka.Sechs Kerne enthalten hochauflösende Belege über Ereignisse während des marinen Isotopen-Stadiums 2 sowie Teile von 1 und 3, wohingegen drei Kerne maximale Daten von 30 ka haben und so Information über das marine Isotopen-Stadium 3 und möglicherweise 4/5 liefern. Die Kerne enthalten drei Haupt-Fazies : Lithofazies A ist ein gelblich/gelbbraunes karbonatreiches Schutt- Sediment, das man auch als Schutt Karbonat-(SK-) Ereignis bezeichnet ; Lithofazies B ist ein olivgrünes karbonatarmes Schutt-Sediment ; und Lithofazies C ist eine schwarze Sediment- einheit. Die Lithofazies spiegeln Wechsel in den glazialen Quellen, der Nähe der Eisdecke und den Ablagerungsprozessen. Wir schließen daraus, dass es eine Korrelation zwischen SK-Ereignissen und den Heinrich-Ereignisssen H-1, H-2 und H-4 im Nordatlantik gibt ; indessen finden wir keine zwingende Evidenz für eine SK-Schicht während H-3 (ca.27 ± ka). Es gibt drei bis vier verschiedene SK-Ereignisse nach H-4 (ca.35 ± ka), aber ihre exakten Alter sind schwer zu bestimmen. Die SK-Schichten sind zum Teil durch Dichtigkeitsströmungen, Schmelzen der Eisberge und Regen von feingekörntem Schlamm und Ton abgelagert worden. Dagegen haben eis-distale Sedimente im Osten des Nordatlantik H-Ereignisse als eine plötzliche Zunahme in sandgroßen, durch Eis gestrandeten Teilchen aufgezeichnet. In unserem untersuchten Gebiet variiert die H-Schichtdicke zwischen 0 bis 70 cm für H-1 und 20 bis 90 cm für H-2 ; H-4 ist 60 bis 100 cm dick. Über die gesamte Länge unserer Belege waren die Sedimentationsbedingungen durch hemipelagische Ablagerung (Lithofazies B) beherrscht, was darauf schließen lässt, dass die Zeiten, als das Eis das Schelf erreichte (Lithofazies A und C) von kurzer Dauer waren.

 

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Auteurs : John T. Andrews, M. Kirby, Anne E. Jennings et D. C. Barber
Titre : Late Quaternary stratigraphy, chronology, and depositional processes on the slope of S.E. Baffin Island, detrital carbonate and Heinrich events: Implications for onshore glacial history
Revue : Géographie physique et Quaternaire, Volume 52, numéro 1, 1998, p. 91-105
URI : http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/004762ar
DOI : 10.7202/004762ar

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