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Géographie physique et Quaternaire

Volume 52, numéro 3, 1998, p. 271-323

Direction : André G. Roy (directeur)

Rédaction : Pierre J. H. Richard (rédacteur en chef)

Éditeur : Les Presses de l'Université de Montréal

ISSN : 0705-7199 (imprimé)  1492-143X (numérique)

DOI : 10.7202/004847ar

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Article

Pingo Growth and collapse, Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula Area, Western Arctic Coast, Canada: a long-term field study

J. Ross Mackay

Abstract

Growth data from precise surveys have been obtained for 11 pingos for periods ranging from 20 to 26 years. Most of the 1350 pingos, perhaps one quarter of the world's total, have grown up in the bottoms of drained lakes underlain by sands. Permafrost aggradation on the drained lake bottoms has resulted in pore water expulsion, solute rejection below the freezing front, a freezing point depression, and groundwater flow at below 0° C to one or more residual ponds, the sites of pingo growth. Sub-pingo water lenses underlie many growing pingos.The pure ice which grows by downward freezing in a sub-pingo water lens may be composed of seasonal growth bands which, like tree rings, are of potential use in the study of past climates. Growing pingos underlain by sub-pingo water lenses can often be identified by features such as peripheral pingo rupture, spring flow, frost mound growth, normal faulting, and oscillations in pingo height. Such features, and others, are associated with hydrofracturing and water loss from a sub-pingo water lens. Some of the data derived from the long-term study of pingo growth are relevant to the identification of collapse features, interpreted as paleo pingos, in areas now without permafrost.

Résumé

Croissance et affaissement des pingos de la péninsule de Tuktoyaktuk, côte occidentale de l’Arctique, Canada : une étude à long terme

Onze pingos ont fait l'objet d'une étude qui comprend des données de croissance et des relevés détaillés pour des périodes allant de 20 à 26 ans. La majorité des 1350 pingos, qui constituent peut-être le quart du total mondial, se sont développés dans des fonds de lacs asséchés, sous lesquels se trouvent des dépôts de sable. L'expansion du pergélisol dans ces dépressions lacustres asséchées a provoqué l'expulsion de l'eau interstitielle, le rejet des solutés sous le front de gel, une diminution du point de congélation et l'écoulement, à des températures sous 0° C, de l'eau souterraine vers des mares résiduelles, là où croissent les pingos. Sous de nombreux pingos en expansion se trouvent des lentilles d'eau. La glace pure qui se forme lors de la progression du ront de gel dans la lentille d'eau peut comporter des bandes de croissance saisonnières qui, tout comme les anneaux de croissance des arbres, peuvent être utiles à l'étude des paléoclimats. Les pingos en expansion comportant des lentilles d'eau sous jacentes peuvent souvent être identifiés à l'aide des caractéristiques suivantes : la rupture en périphérie du pingo, l'écoulement printanier, la croissance de buttes cryogènes, des failles normales et des oscillations de la hauteur du pingo. Ces caractéristiques, ainsi que d'autres, sont associées à la fracturation hydraulique et la perte en eau de la lentille sous-jacente. Certaines données dérivées de l'étude à long terme de la croissance des pingos sont utiles à l'identification des structures d'affaissement, structures que l'on associe à des paléo-pingos dans des régions actuellement sans pergélisol.

Zusammenfassung

Pingowachstum und Pingoeinsturz, Tuktoyaktuk Halbinsel, westarktische Küste, Kanada: Eine Langzeitgeländestudie.

Wachstumsdaten wurden durch exakte Vermessungen für 11 Pingos über Zeiträume von 20 bis 26 Jahren gewonnen. Die meisten der 1350 Pingos, was vielleicht einem Viertel aller Pingos weltwei entspricht, sind in entwässerten Seen mit Sandgrund entstanden. Die Entstehung von Permafrost am Grunde dieser Seen hat Porenwasserausschleuderung, Lösungsverhinderung unter dem Gefrierpunkt, Gefrierpunktserniedrigung und Grundwasserströmung unter 0° C zu einem oder mehreren zurückgebliebenen Tümpel, die der Pingoenstehung dienen, zur Folge. Linsenförmige Wassereinschlüsse unterlagern vielen Pingos während deren Entstehung. Das reine Eis, das durch tiefengerichtetes Gefrieren in den Wassereinschlüssen unter einem Pingo entsteht, kann mit säsonalen Wachstumsbändern durchsetzt sein. Diese können, ähnlich wie Baumringe, in der Paläoklimaforschung Verwendung finden. Enstehende Pingos, die von linsenförmigen Wasserlinsen unterlagert sind, sind oft durch Randriß, Quellfluß, Frosthügelwuchs, Verwerfungen und Schwankungen in der Pingohöhe gekennzeichnet. Diese und andere Foremen sind mit Wasserdruckriß und Wasserverlust der unterlagernden Wasserkammer verbunden. Ein Teil der durch die Langzeitstudie des Pingowuchses gewonnenen Daten dienen der Erkennung von Einsturzformen, die in Gebieten die heute keinen Permafrost mehr aufweisen als Paläopingos interpretiert werden.

 

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Auteur : J. Ross Mackay
Titre : Pingo Growth and collapse, Tuktoyaktuk Peninsula Area, Western Arctic Coast, Canada: a long-term field study
Revue : Géographie physique et Quaternaire, Volume 52, numéro 3, 1998, p. 271-323
URI : http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/004847ar
DOI : 10.7202/004847ar

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