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Numéro 12, novembre 1998

British Women Playwrights around 1800: New Paradigms and Recoveries

Sous la direction de Thomas C. Crochunis

Direction : Michael Eberle-Sinatra (directeur)

Éditeur : Université de Montréal

ISSN : 1467-1255 (numérique)

DOI : 10.7202/005817ar

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Article

Joanna Baillie: An Annotated Bibliography

Ken A. Bugajski

Texas A&M University


Notes on Methodology and Terminology

1

Although I endeavored to view as many of the sources as possible, limits of time and resources prevented me from examining each source listed here, especially those from the nineteenth century. I have placed an asterisk (*) before any source which I have not seen. In regard to reviews of Baillie's plays, I include references gathered from other resources (such as Carhart's biography and A. S. Ward's Bibliography of Literature Reviews in British Periodicals) and list them as reviews based on their date of publication and their proximity to the publication date for one of Baillie's works. In other words, reviews marked with an asterisk have the potential not to be a review of the work under which the review is listed, though this likelihood is small.

2

Baillie scholars may note that several references listed in the appendix of Margaret Carhart's biography are not included in this bibliography. In some cases, Carhart's citations appear, to the best of my knowledge, to be inaccurate; in others, Carhart notes a publication containing only a passing reference to Baillie. As these sources provide little critical evaluation of Baillie, I have omitted them from my bibliography.

3

Throughout this bibliography, I define works as "contemporary" if they were published during Baillie's lifetime, while "modern" sources are those published after Baillie's death in 1851. Abbreviations used in this bibliography include:

  • DAI—Dissertation Abstracts International

  • n.d.—no date

  • n. pag.—no pagination

  • n. pub.—no publisher

  • ns—new series

  • os—old series

  • ser.—series

Acknowledgments

4

I would like to thank the following people for their contributions to this project: Harrison T. Meserole for his annotations for the secondary criticism in German; Jeffrey N. Cox and Marjean Purinton for their help in an earlier phase of this project; Catherine Burroughs, Michael Gamer, Michael Eberle-Sinatra, Janice Patten, Julie Aipperspach, and Tricia J. V. Bugajski for reading and commenting on an early draft of the secondary criticism section; Judith Slagle for her willingness to share her research on Baillie's letters; James L. Harner for his always good advice and citation format expertise; and Tom Crochunis for his perpetual council throughout this project.

5

All bibliographers know that no bibliography is entirely finished. If you know of additions or corrections, please send them to me at kab0094@acs.tamu.edu or Dept. of English, Mail Stop 4227, Texas A&M University, 77843-4227.

I. Primary Works

A. Contemporary Editions

1. Dramatic Works

a. Multi-Play Volumes
6

*Dramas. 3 vols. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1836.

Contains Romiero, The Alienated Manor, Henriquez, The Martyr (Vol. 1), The Separation, The Stripling, The Phantom, Enthusiasm (Vol. 2), Witchcraft, The Homicide, The Bride, and The Match (Vol. 3).

Reviews:

  • Athenaeum 427 (2 Jan. 1836): 4-5.

  • Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 39 (1836): 1-16.

  • Edinburgh Review 63 (1836): 73-101.

  • Fraser's Magazine 13 (1836): 236-49.

  • Gentleman's Magazine ns 6 (1836): 3-15.

  • London and Westminster Review 33 (1840): 401-24.

  • Museum of Foreign Literature and Science 28 (1836): 458-68. (Reprints the review from the Quarterly Review, below.)

  • Quarterly Review 55 (1835-36): 487-513.

Performance Reviews:

  • Rev. of Henriquez. Athenaeum 439 (26 Mar 1836): 228.

  • Rev. of The Separation. Athenaeum 435 (27 Feb. 1836): 164.

  • Rev. of The Separation. Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction 27 (1836): 155-58.

7

*Miscellaneous Plays. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1804.

8

*—-. 2nd ed. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1805.

Includes the plays Rayner, The Country Inn, and Constantine Paleologus, or The Last of the Caesars.

Reviews:

  • *Annual Review 3 (1804): 609-17.

  • *La Belle Assemblée 1 [Suppl.] (1806): 17-18.

  • British Critic 27 (1806): 22-28.

  • Critical Review 3rd ser. 4 (1805): 238-54.British Critic 27 (1806): 22-28.

  • *Eclectic Review 10 (1813): 21-32; 167-86.

  • Edinburgh Review 5 (1805): 405-21.

  • Imperial Review 3 (1805): 252-63.

  • *Lady's Monthly Museum 16 (1806): 201.

  • *Literary Journal 5 (1805): 49-64.

  • London and Westminster Review 33 (1840): 401-24.

  • Monthly Magazine 19 [Suppl.] (1805): 660.

  • Monthly Mirror 19 (1805): 327-34; 398-403.

  • Monthly Review 49 (1806): 303-10.

  • New Annual Register 25 (1804): 351.

  • Poetical Register 4 (1804): 506.

9

*Plays. New York: Longworth, 1810.

Contains The Beacon, The Family Legend, and The Siege.

10

*A Series of Plays: In Which it is Attempted to Delineate the Stronger Passions of the Mind— Each Passion Being the Subject of a Tragedy and a Comedy. 3 vols. London: Cadell and Davies (vols. 1 and 2); Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown (vol. 3), 1798-1812.

11

*—-. New ed. 3 vols. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1821.

12

*A Series of Plays: In Which it is Attempted to Delineate the Stronger Passions of the Mind— Each Passion Being the Subject of a Tragedy and a Comedy. Volume 1. London: Cadell and Davies, 1798.

13

*—-. 2nd ed. London: Cadell and Davies, 1799.

14

*—-. 3rd ed. London: Cadell and Davies, 1800.

15

*—-. 4th ed. London: Cadell and Davies, 1802.

16

*—-. 5th ed. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1806.

Contains the Introductory Discourse, Count Basil, The Tryal, and De Monfort.

Reviews:

  • *Analytical Review 27 (1798): 524-28.

  • British Critic 13 (1799): 284-90.

  • *Critical Review ns 24 (1798): 13-22.

  • *Imperial Magazine 1 (1804): 335-44; 2 (1804): 89-97.

  • *Lady's Monthly Museum 13 (1804): 126-27.

  • *Literary Leisure 1 (1800): 221-34.

  • London and Westminster Review 33 (1840): 401-24.

  • Monthly Magazine 5 [Suppl.] (1798): 507-08.

  • Monthly Mirror 11 (1801): 112-14; 14 (1802): 258-59.

  • Monthly Review 27 (1798): 66-69.

  • *New London Review 1 (1799): 72-74.

Performance Reviews:

  • Dutton, Thomas. Rev. of De Monfort. Dramatic Censor 2 (1800): 112-18; 127-33.

  • Rev. of De Monfort. European Magazine 37 (1800): 384-86.

  • Rev. of De Monfort. Monthly Magazine 9 (1800): 487.

17

*A Series of Plays: In Which it is Attempted to Delineate the Stronger Passions of the Mind— Each Passion Being the Subject of a Tragedy and a Comedy. Volume 2. London: Cadell and Davies, 1802.

18

*—-. 2nd ed. London: Cadell and Davies, 1802.

19

*—-. 3rd ed. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1806.

Includes The Election, Ethwald (parts one and two), and The Second Marriage.

Reviews:

  • *Annual Review 1 (1802): 680-85.

  • British Critic 20 (1802): 184-94.

  • Critical Review ns 37 (1803): 200-12.

  • Edinburgh Review 2 (1803): 269-86.

  • European Magazine 42 (1802): 126.

  • London and Westminster Review 33 (1840): 401-24.

  • Monthly Review 43 (1804): 31-39.

  • New Annual Register 23 (1802): 319.

  • Poetical Register 2 (1802): 449-50.

20

*A Series of Plays: In Which it is Attempted to Delineate the Stronger Passions of the Mind— Each Passion Being the Subject of a Tragedy and a Comedy. Volume 3. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1812.

Contains Orra, The Dream, The Siege, and The Beacon.

Reviews:

  • British Critic 40 (1812): 554-59.

  • British Review 3 (1812): 172-90.

  • *Critical Review 4th ser. 1 (1812): 449-62.

  • *Eclectic Review 10 (1813): 21-32; 167-86.

  • *Edinburgh Magazine ns 2 (1818): 517-20.

  • Edinburgh Review 16 (1811-12): 261-90.

  • Monthly Magazine 14 [Suppl.] (1802-03): 600.

  • Monthly Review 69 (1812): 382-93.

b. Plays Published Individually
21

*Basil: A Tragedy. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea, 1811.

22

*The Beacon: A Serious Musical Drama, in Two Acts. New York: Longworth, 1812.

23

*—-. London: Strahan and Preston, 1815.

24

*The Bride: a Drama in Three Acts. London: Colburn, 1828.

25

*—-. Philadelphia: Neal, 1828.

26

*—-. Philadelphia: Diggens, 1828.

27

*De Monfort: A Tragedy in Five Acts. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1807.

28

*—-. New York: Longworth, 1809.

29

*The Dream: A Tragedy in Prose, in Three Acts. New York: Longworth, 1812.

30

*The Election: A Comedy in Five Acts. Philadelphia: Carey, 1811.

31

*The Family Legend: A Tragedy. Edinburgh: John Ballantyne; London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1810.

32

*—-. New York: Longworth, 1810.

33

—-. 2nd ed. Edinburgh: Ballantyne, 1810.

Performance Reviews:

  • British Critic 38 (1811): 53-59.

  • *Eclectic Review 10 (1813): 21-32, 167-86.

  • *Edinburgh Monthly Magazine 1 (1810): 47-49.

  • *Glasgow Magazine 1 (1810): 140-48.

  • *Hibernia Magazine 1 (1810): 336.

  • Monthly Mirror ns 7 (1810): 313-14.

  • Monthly Review 69 (1812): 382-93.

  • Poetical Register 8 (1810-11): 595-96.

  • Scots Magazine 72 (1810): 103-07.

34

*The Martyr: A Drama, in Three Acts. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1826.

Reviews:

  • *La Belle Assemblée 3rd ser. 3 (1826): 267.

  • *Inspector 1 (1826): 130.

  • *Lady's Magazine ns 7 (1826): 246-48.

  • *Literary Gazette 484 (1826): 260-61.

  • Monthly Review 3rd ser. 2 (1826): 174-84.

  • New Monthly Magazine 18 (1826): 230.

  • *Panoramic Miscellany 1 (1826): 665-68.

  • *Orra: A Tragedy in Five Acts. New York: Longworth, 1812.

  • *The Siege: A Comedy in Five Acts. New York: Longworth, 1812.

2. Non-Dramatic Works

35

*Ahalya Baee: A Poem. London: [Printed for private circulation by] Spottiswoode and Shaw, 1849.

36

*"The Bonny Boat." Cole's Selection of Scottish Melodies 2. Baltimore: Cole, 1800.

37

*—-. Hartford: Kappel, n.d. [1830-39].

38

*"Epilogue to the Theatrical Representation at Strawberry-Hill." 1800.

An epilogue for Mary Berry's Fashionable Friends, published as a broadside. Reprinted in The Dramatic and Poetical Works of Joanna Baillie: Complete in One Volume, listed in Primary/Contemporary/Collected, below.

39

*Fugitive Verses. London: Moxon, 1840.

40

*—-. New ed. London: Moxon, 1842

41

*—-. London: Moxon: 1864.

Reviews:

  • Athenaeum 691 (23 Jan. 1841): 69-70.

  • Quarterly Review 67 (1841): 437-52 (Although a review of Fugitive Verses, almost fifty percent of the review discusses the Plays on the Passions, especially De Monfort).

42

*Metrical Legends of Exalted Characters. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1821.

43

*—-. 2nd ed. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1821.

Reviews:

  • *Eclectic Review ns 16 (1821): 428-42.

  • *Edinburgh Magazine ns 8 (1821): 260-65.

  • *European Magazine 79 (1821): 239-42.

  • *Lady's Monthly Museum ns 13 (1821): 158.

  • *Literary Chronicle 94 (03 March 1821): 129-32.

  • *Literary Gazette 214 (1821): 113-15.

  • Monthly Review 2nd ser. 96 (1821): 72-81.

  • *New Edinburgh Review 1 (1821): 393-414.

44

"Epistles to the Literati, No. 9." Fraser's Magazine 14 (1836): 748-49.

Responds to the Quarterly Review's appraisal of her Dramas, specifically the character of Romiero. Argues that Romiero possesses dignity and nobility, and compares her hero to Othello.

45

*Poems: Wherein It Is Attempted to Describe Certain Views of Nature and of Rustic Manners; And Also, To Point Out, In Some Instances, the Different Influence Which the Same Circumstances Produce on Different Characters. London: Johnson, 1790.

While this volume is listed in the New Cambridge Bibliography of English Literature and mentioned in several works, including Carhart's biography, as the first edition of Fugitive Verses, Roger Lonsdale has correctly identified this title as Baillie's first published volume.

46

*A View of the General Tenour of the New Testament Regarding the Nature and Dignity of Jesus Christ: Including a Collection of the Various Passages in the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and the Epistles which Relate to that Subject. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown and Green, 1831.

47

*A View of the General Tenour of the New Testament Regarding the Nature and Dignity of Jesus Christ: Including a Collection of the Various Passages in the Gospels, Acts of the Apostles, and the Epistles which Relate to that Subject. To Which Are Now Added a Correspondence with the Late Bishop of Salisbury, Together with Remarks on the Pre-Existence of Christ, and on Toleration and Fanaticism. 2nd ed. London: Taylor, 1838.

3. Collected Works

48

*The Complete Poetical Works. Philadelphia: Carey and Lea, 1832.

49

The Dramatic and Poetical Works of Joanna Baillie: Complete in One Volume. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1851.

50

*—-. 2nd ed. London: Longman, Brown, Green and Longmans, 1853.

Reviews:

  • Athenaeum 1211 (11 Jan. 1851): 41.

  • Eclectic Review ns 1 (1851): 407-23.

4. Works in Anthologies or Collections

a. Complete Works
51

*Baillie, Joanna. Basil: A Tragedy in Five Acts. Philadelphia: Palmer, 1823.

Published with Thomas Otway's The Orphan, or, The Unhappy Marriage.

52

*—-. The Beacon. London: Longman, n.d.

Published with Robert Jephson's The Count of Narbonne, Robert Francis Jameson's The Students of Salamanca, and David Garrick's The Country Girl.

53

*—-. The Beacon. Select Plays. 2 vols. New York: Longworth, 1813.

Published with The Bankrupt, The Liar, and The Orators by Samuel Foote and The Peasant Boy by W. Dimond.

54

—-. De Monfort: A Tragedy in Five Acts. The British Theatre, or, A Collection of Plays. Vol. 24. Ed. Elizabeth Inchbald. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1808.

55

*—-. 2nd ed. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1816.

Published with The Road to Ruin and The Deserted Daughter by Thomas Holcroft, The Stranger by Benjamin Thompson, and Point of Honour by Charles Kemble. For Inchbald's introduction, see Secondary/Critical, below.

56

*Baillie, Joanna, and Joseph Gostick. Fugitive Verses, With The Spirit of German Poetry: A Series of Translations from the German Poets. London: Smith, 1845.

b. Selected Poems and Excerpts
57

Note: For this section, I have listed the poems as they appear in each volume, including variations in titles and of spelling. However, in cases where the collection titled one of Baillie's lyrics as "Song," I have instead given the first line.

58

Baillie, Joanna, ed. A Collection of Poems, Chiefly Manuscript, and from Living Authors. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1823.

For annotation, see Primary/Contemporary/Edited Works, below.

59

Bethune, George W., ed. The British Female Poets: With Biographical and Critical Notices. New York: Hurst, 1848. Essay Index Reprint Series. Freeport: Books for Libraries, 1972. 159-80.

Prints brief excerpts from Ethwald, Rayner, Orra, The Beacon, The Separation and "The Kitten." Also includes "The Travellers by Night," "Reveille," "The Chough and the Crow" [from Orra], "Bridal Song," " Serenade," "Hymn of the Martyr," "Wished-for gales the light vane veering," "Where distant billows meet the sky," and "The gliding fish that takes his play."

60

Chambers, Robert, ed. Cyclopedia of English Literature: A History, Critical and Biographical, of British Authors, from the Earliest to Present Times. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Chambers, 1844. 451-43, 511-14.

Includes "The Kitten," "Address to Miss Agnes Baillie on Her Birthday," and scenes from De Monfort, Orra, and Ethwald.

61

Hall, S. C., ed. The Book of Gems. 3 vols. London: Bohn, 1849. 3:268-73.

Prints Baillie's "To a Child," "The Kitten," and "O welcome bat and owlet gray."

62

*Inglis, Robert. Gleanings from the English Poets, Chaucer to Tennyson. Edinburgh and London: Gall and Terrace, 1881.

Prints Baillie's "Picture of Country Life." (Information on this volume obtained from http://humanitas.ucsb.edu/depts/english/research/grad/anthologies/Gleanings.html.)

63

*Thomson, George. The Select Melodies of Scotland, Interspersed with Those of Ireland and Wales. London: Preston; Edinburgh: Thomson, 1822.

For annotation, see Primary/Contemporary/Adaptations, below.

64

Rowton, Frederic. The Female Poets of Great Britain. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans; Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1849. 287-306.

Reprints "To a Child," "A Mother to Her Waking Infant," "What voice is this, thou evening gale," "The Grave of Columbus," and scenes from De Monfort and Henriquez. For Rowton's critical assessment, see Secondary/Critical, below.

65

*Scott, Walter. English Minstrelsy. Being a selection of fugitive poetry from the best English authors; with some original pieces hitherto unpublished. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Ballantyne, 1810.

Prints "The Kitten," "The Heathcock," and a song. (Information on this volume obtained from http://humanitas.ucsb.edu/depts/english/research/grad/anthologies/SW-Scott.html.)

5. Edited Works

66

Baillie, Joanna, ed. A Collection of Poems, Chiefly Manuscript, and from Living Authors. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1823.

Prepared for a Mrs. Stirling, a friend of Baillie's who had fallen into financial straits. Contains poetry from many notable poets of the day, including Anna Barbauld, General Alexander Dirom (see O'Reilly, Primary/Modern/Letters/By Baillie, below), Felicia Hemans, Sir Walter Scott, William Sotheby, Robert Southey, and Baillie herself. Includes Baillie's "A Volunteer Song," "To Mrs. Siddons," "To a Child," "Address to a Steam Vessel," "A November Night's Traveller," and "Sir Maurice."

Reviews:

  • *British Critic ns 19 (1823): 551-55.

  • Eclectic Review ns 20 (1823): 264-76.

  • Monthly Review 2nd ser. 103 (1824): 410-17.

67

*—-. Occasional Verses: To Which Are Added, Extracts from Letters, &c. By Sophia Baillie. London: [L. Miller], 1846.

Contains poems and letters of Baillie's sister-in-law, collected after her death.

6. Adaptations and Translations

68

*Beethoven, Ludwig van, arr. "O Swiftly Glides the Bonny Boat: A Scotch Air." Baltimore: Cole, 1822.

69

*—-. New York: Dubois and Stodart, 1824.

70

*—-. New York: Geib and Walker, n.d.

71

*Cramer, Karl Friedrich, trans. Ethwald, ein Traurspiel in funf Acten. [Amsterdam]: Rohloff, 1807.

A translation of the second volume of A Series of Plays.

72

*The Election: A Comic Opera in Three Acts. Ms. 1971. Henry E. Huntington Library, Larpent Collection of Plays, California.

FirstSearch states that the play is "Altered from Joanna Baillie," but gives no information on who altered it.

73

*Horn, Charles Edward, arr. "'Tis Love in the Heart: The Admired Rondo [from The Election]." Words by Samuel J. Arnold. Philadelphia: Blake, n.d.

74

*—-. London: Williams, 1819.

A song from The Election altered by Arnold, FirstSearch states, "with the approbation of the authoress."

75

*Kemble, John Philip. De Monfort: A Tragedy in Five Acts. Ms. 1287. Henry E. Huntington Library, Larpent Collection of Plays, California.

According to Jeffrey N. Cox in Seven Gothic Dramas, this manuscript reworks De Monfort by making use of contemporary sources (232).

76

*Schreiter, H. G., trans. Basil: A Tragedy. Altenberg: n. pub., 1807.

A translation of Count Basil into German.

77

Thomson, George. The Select Melodies of Scotland, Interspersed with Those of Ireland and Wales. 5 vols. London: Preston; Edinburgh: Thomson, 1822.

Includes "O welcome bat and owlet gray," "The gowan glitters on the sward," "Woo'd and Married and A'," "Poverty Parts Good Company," "The Note of the Black Cock," "The Maid of Llanwellyn," "The morning air plays on my face," "Hooly and Fairly," "Now bar the door, shut out the gale," and "O Swiftly Glides the Bonny Boat." Composers for Baillie's lyrics include Kozeluch, Beethoven, and Haydn.

Review:

  • Edinburgh Review 39 (1823-24): 67-84.

7. Miscellany

78

*Baillie, Joanna. De Monfort. Huntington Manuscript 32693. Huntington Library. California, United States. http://www.huntington.org/LibraryDiv/LibraryHome.html

According to Jeffrey N. Cox in Seven Gothic Dramas, this manuscript appears in the hand of Thomas Campbell, who prepared it for Sarah Siddons, Jane De Monfort in the original production (232). Siddons added her own marginal notes to this manuscript.

79

*Bishop, Henry R. The Overture, Songs, Duett, Glees and Choruses, in the Musical Play of Guy Mannering. Additional text by Joanna Baillie. London: Goulding, D'Almaine, and Potter, 1816.

80

*—-. "The Chough and Crow to Roost Are Gone." Additional text by Joanna Baillie. London: Goulding, D'Almaine, and Potter, 1820.

81

*—-. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Blake, n.d.

Originally from Orra and then transferred to Guy Mannering, this song was published separately after The Overture, Songs, Duett, Glees and Choruses.

82

*Shakespeare, William. Shakespeare's Tragedy of Macbeth.

FirstSearch states that the "Folger Shakespeare Library's copy is Edwin Booth's promptbook for an unspecified production. Manuscript annotations include remarks about the play by Joanna Baillie, portraits of Edwin Booth as Macbeth, Charlotte Cushman as Lady Macbeth, [and] some prompt notes."

B. Modern Editions

1. Dramatic Works

a. Individual Volumes
83

The Family Legend and Metrical Legends of Exalted Characters. Ed. and Introd. Donald H. Reiman. Romantic Context: Poetry. Significant Minor Poetry, 1789-1830. New York and London: Garland, 1976.

Reprints the 1810 first edition of The Family Legend. For the annotation of the introduction, see Reiman, Secondary/Critical, below.

84

*The Dramatic and Poetical Works. Anglista and American 177. Hildesheim and New York: Verlag, 1976.

Reprints the 1851 edition of The Dramatic and Poetical Works of Joanna Baillie: Complete in One Volume.

85

*Joanna Baillie: A Selection of Poems and Plays. Ed. Keith Hanley and Amanda Gilroy. Brookfield: Pickering and Chatto, 1997.

86

Miscellaneous Plays. Ed. and Introd. Donald H. Reiman. Romantic Context: Poetry. Significant Minor Poetry, 1789-1830. New York and London: Garland, 1977.

Reprints the 1804 first edition. For the annotation of the introduction, see Reiman, Secondary/Critical, below.

87

A Series of Plays. 3 vols. Ed. and Introd. Donald H. Reiman. Romantic Context: Poetry. Significant Minor Poetry, 1789-1830. New York and London: Garland, 1977.

Reprints the first edition of each volume. For the annotation of the introduction, see Reiman, Secondary/Critical, below.

88

*A Series of Plays: In Which It Is Attempted to Delineate the Stronger Passions of the Mind. Ed. Caroline Franklin. London: Routledge, 1996.

89

A Series of Plays, 1798. Ed. and Introd. Jonathan Wordsworth. Oxford and New York: Woodstock, 1990.

Reprints the first edition of the first volume of A Series of Plays. For the annotation of the introduction, see Wordsworth, Secondary/Critical, below.

b. Complete Dramas in Anthologies
90

Count Basil. British Literature, 1780-1830. Ed. Anne K. Mellor and Richard E. Matlak. Fort Worth: Harcourt Brace, 1996. 458-93.

Prints the first edition of Count Basil as it appears in Jonathan Wordsworth's Woodstock facsimile edition (see this section, above).

91

De Monfort. Seven Gothic Dramas, 1789-1825. Ed. Jeffrey N. Cox. Athens: Ohio UP, 1992. 231-314.

A critical edition based on the 1798 first edition text. Also considers the texts of a manuscript from 1800 (Larpent Ms. 1287, see Primary/Manuscripts/Published, below) and Campbell's manuscript version (Huntington Ms. 32693, see Primary/Contemporary/Miscellany, above). For the annotation of Cox's introduction to De Monfort and reviews of this book, see Secondary/Critical, below. Scenes from this edition appear in electronic form; for URL, see Secondary/Electronic, below.

92

*De Monfort. Romantic Tragedies. British Theatre: Eighteenth-Century English Drama 20. Frankfurt: Minerva, 1969.

93

The Family Legend. Female Playwrights of the Nineteenth Century. Ed. Adrienne Scullion. Everyman's Library. London: Dent; Rutland: Tuttle, 1996. 3-74.

Reprints the 1810 first edition.

2. Non-Dramatic Works

a. Individual Volumes
94

The Family Legend and Metrical Legends of Exalted Characters. Ed. and Introd. Donald H. Reiman. Romantic Context: Poetry. Significant Minor Poetry, 1789-1830. New York and London: Garland, 1976.

Reprints the 1810 first edition of The Family Legend and an 1821 edition of Metrical Legends. For the annotation of the introduction, see Reiman, Secondary/Critical, below.

95

*Joanna Baillie: A Selection of Poems and Plays. Ed. Keith Hanley and Amanda Gilroy. Brookfield: Pickering and Chatto, 1997.

96

Joanna Baillie: Poems, 1790. Ed. and Introd. Jonathan Wordsworth. Revolution and Romanticism, 1789-1834. Oxford and New York: Woodstock, 1994.

Reprints Poems: Wherein It Is Attempted . . ., Baillie's first published work. For the annotation of the introduction, see Wordsworth, Secondary/Critical, below.

97

*—-. Poems. Akros Pocket Classics Series 20. Edinburgh: Akros, 1995.

b. Selected Poems and Dramatic Excerpts
98

Note: As above, I have listed the poems as they appear in each volume, including variations in titles and of spelling. I have substituted the first line of poems identified only as "Song."

99

Abrams, M. H., ed. The Norton Anthology of English Literature. 6th ed. 2 vols. New York: Norton, 1993.

Reprints "Up! quit thy bower" and "Woo'd and Married and A'." (Information on this volume obtained through http://www.muohio.edu/~anthol/norton6.htm.)

100

Armstrong, Isobel, Joseph Bristow, with Cath Sharrock, ed. Nineteenth-Century Women Poets: An Oxford Anthology. Oxford: Clarendon, 1996. 50-73.

Prints "A Winter's Day," "A Summer's Day," "To a Child," "London," "Lines to a Teapot," "Address to a Steamvessel," and "Volunteer's Song, Written in 1803."

101

*Ashfield, Andrew. Romantic Women Poets, 1770-1838. New York: Manchester UP, 1995.

Prints "An Address to the Night: A Fearful Mind," "London," "Address to a Steamvessel," and excerpts from "A Winter Day," "A Summer Day," "Thunder," "Wind," and "The Traveller by Night in November." (Information on this volume obtained through http://www.muohio.edu/~anthol/ashfield.htm.)

102

Breen, Jennifer, ed. Women Romantic Poets, 1785-1832: An Anthology. Everyman's Library. London: Dent; Rutland: Tuttle, 1992. 43-71.

Includes "A Winter's Day," "A Summer's Day," "A Reverie," "A Disappointment," "A Mother to Her Waking Infant," "A Child to His Sick Grandfather," "Hooly and Fairly," and "What voice is this, thou evening gale!"

103

Dixon, W. Macneille, ed. The Edinburgh Book of Scottish Verse, 1300-1900. London: Meiklejohn and Holden, 1910. Granger Index Reprint Series. Freeport: Books for Libraries, 1971. 535-40.

Contains "The Fisherman's Song," "The Outlaw's Song" from Orra ["The chough and crow to roost are gone"], "The Shepherd's Song," ["The gowan glitters on the sward"], and "Saw ye Johnnie Comin'."

104

Feldman, Paula R. ed. British Women Poets of the Romantic Era: An Anthology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins UP, 1997.

Prints "Wind," "Thunder," "The Kitten," "Up! Quit Thy Bower," "Woo'd and Married and A'," "Address to a Steam Vessel," "The Sun is Down," "Lines to a Teapot," and "The Maid of Llanwellyn."

105

Fullard, Joyce, ed. British Women Poets 1660-1800: An Anthology. Troy: Whitston, 1990. 56-57, 146-48, 228-29, 458-63.

Presents "London," an excerpt from "Address to the Muses," and several songs: "Child, with many a childish wile," "Upon her saddle's quilted seat," "Wake awhile and pleasant be," "Come, form we round a cheerful ring," "O swiftly glides the bonny boat," and "High is the tower, and the watch-dogs bay."

106

Hale, Sarah Josepha. Woman's Record; or Sketches of All Distinguished Women from the Creation to A. D. 1854, Arranged in Four Eras with Selections from Female Writers of Every Age. 2nd ed., rev. New York: Harper, 1855. Rpt. History of Women 1780. New Haven: Research, 1975. 574-77.

Includes passages from the following: De Monfort, Henriquez, Orra, Romiero, "Lady Griseld Baillie," "Christopher Columbus," and "Address to Miss Agnes on Her Birthday."

107

Higonnet, Margaret Randolph, ed. British Women Poets of the 19th Century. New York: Meridian-Penguin, 1996. 143-67.

Prints "A Winter's Day," "A Summer's Day," "A Reverie," "A Mother to Her Waking Infant," "Address to the Muses," "London," and "Verses Written in February 1827."

108

Johnson, Rossiter, ed. Works from the British Poets, from Chaucer to Morris, with Biographical Sketches. 3 vols. New York: Appleton, 1876. 2:16-34.

Contains "To a Child," "Christopher Columbus," "Lady Griseld Baillie," and "Lord John of the East." Includes a portrait of Baillie as the frontispiece for volume two.

109

Jump, Harriet Devine, ed. Women's Writing of the Romantic Period, 1789-1836: An Anthology. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1997. 61-63.

Prints two brief passages from the Introductory Discourse.

110

Kerrigan, Catherine, ed. An Anthology of Scottish Women Poets. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1991. 172-76.

Includes "Poverty Parts Good Company," "Tam O' the Lin," "Woo'd and Married and A'," and "The Shepherd's Song."

111

Kopp, Richard. Welsh Folksongs. http://acronet.net/~robokopp/welsh/maidofll.html. 10 August 1998. [no longer available]

Prints "The Maid of Llanwellyn," and includes a link to a melody which can be downloaded.

112

Lonsdale, Roger, ed. Eighteenth Century Women Poets: An Oxford Anthology. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1989. 429-45.

Reprints "A Reverie," "A Mother to Her Waking Infant," "A Child to His Sick Grandfather," "The Horse and His Rider," and excerpts from "A Winter Day," "A Summer Day," "An Address to the Muses," and "Night Scenes of Other Times."

113

—-. The New Oxford Book of Eighteenth Century Verse. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1984. 770-75.

Includes "A Disappointment," "A Mother to Her Waking Infant," "A Child to His Sick Grandfather," and "The Horse and His Rider."

114

McCordick, David, ed. Scottish Literature: An Anthology. 3 vols. New York: Lang, 1996. 2:217-25.

Contains "Disappointment," "Woo'd and Married and A'," "Fy, Let Us A' to the Wedding," "It Fell on a Morning," "The gowan glitters on the sward," "Love's Wistful Tale," "Wake, Lady," and "The Black Cock."

115

McGann, Jerome J., ed. The New Oxford Book of Romantic Period Verse. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1993. 592-98.

Prints "The Ghost of Fadon."

116

Miles, Alfred H., ed. The Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Century. 12 vols. London: Routledge, 1905-07. New York: AMS Press, 1967. 8:1-16.

Presents "The chough and crow to roost are gone" from Orra, "Saw Ye Johnny Comin'?," "The Maid of Llanwellyn," "Poverty Parts Gude Companie," "Fy, Let Us A' to the Wedding," "The gowan glitters on the sward," "It Was on a Morn," "Woo'd and Married and A'," and "Good Night, Good Night" from The Phantom.

117

Milford, H. S., ed. The Oxford Book of English Verse of the Romantic Period, 1798-1837. Oxford: Clarendon, 1935. 49-51.

A reprint of The Oxford Book of Regency Verse, below.

118

—-. The Oxford Book of Regency Verse, 1798-1837. Oxford: Clarendon, 1928. 49-51.

Prints brief excerpts from The Country Inn and Orra.

119

Mitford, Mary Russell. Recollections of a Literary Life; Or, Books, Places, and People. London: Bentley, 1851; New York: Harper, 1852. Rpt. Women of Letters. New York: AMS, 1975. 152-57.

Reprints "The Black Cock," "Woo'd and Married and A'," and "O welcome bat and owlet gray." For Mitford's critical evaluation, see Secondary/Critical, below.

120

Oliver, John W. and J. C. Smith, ed. A Scots Anthology from the Thirteenth to the Twentieth Century. Edinburgh and London: Oliver and Boyd, 1949. 359-60.

Prints "The Trysting Bush."

121

Patrick, David and J. Liddell Geddie, ed. Chambers's Cyclopaedia of English Literature. New ed. 3 vols. London and Edinburgh: Chambers, 1927. 2:729-34.

Includes "The Shepherd's Song," selections from "The Kitten," "Address to Miss Agnes Baillie on Her Birthday," and scenes from De Monfort, Orra, and Ethwald.

122

Peacock, W., ed. English Verse. 5 vols. World's Classics. London: Oxford UP, 1930. 3:533-38.

Contains "The Fisherman's Song," "The Outlaw's Song" from Orra ["The chough and crow to roost are gone"], "The Shepherd's Song," ["The gowan glitters on the sward"], "Oh welcome, bat and owlet gray," and "Hay Making."

123

*Perkins, David, ed. English Romantic Writers. 2nd ed. New York: Harcourt, 1995.

Includes "A Reverie," "A Mother to Her Waking Infant," "Woo'd and Married and A'," "The Ghost of Fadon," "The Kitten," and passages from the Introductory Discourse. (Information on this volume obtained through (http://www.muohio.edu/~anthol/perkins2.htm.)

124

Petersohn, Frank. Folksongs of Various Countries. http://ingeb.org/songs/maidofll.html. 10 August 1998.

Prints "The Maid of Llanwellyn" with a link to a melody for the lyric.

125

Quiller-Couch, Arthur. The Oxford Book of English Verse. Oxford: Clarendon, 1901.

Includes "The Outlaw's Song" [The chough and crow to roost are gone"]. (Information on this book obtained from http://www.bartleby.com/101/; see also Secondary/Electronic, below.)

126

Robertson, Fiona, ed. Scott. Vol. 3 of Lives of the Great Romantics II: Keats, Coleridge, and Scott, By Their Contemporaries. London: Pickering and Chatto, 1997. 20-22.

Reproduces "Lines on the Death of Sir Walter Scott."

127

Rogers, Charles. The Scottish Minstrel: The Songs of Scotland Subsequent to Burns. 2nd ed. Brooklyn: Swayne, 1870.

Contains "The Maid of Llanwellyn," "Good Night, Good Night," "Though richer swains thy love pursue," "Poverty Parts Gude Companie," "Fy, Let Us A' to the Wedding," "Hooly and Fairly," "The Weary Pund O' Tow," "The Wee Pickle Tow," "The gowan glitters on the sward," "Saw Ye Johnnie Comin," "It Fell on a Morning," and "Woo'd and Married and A'."

128

Stanford, Ann, ed. The Women Poets in English: An Anthology. New York: Hender and Hender-McGraw Hill, 1972. 101-02.

Prints "The Trysting Bush."

129

Tytler, Sarah and J. L. Watson. The Songstresses of Scotland. London: Strahan, 1871. 2:311-34.

Includes "Wi' Lang-Legg'd Tam," "The Merry Bachelor," "Woo'd and Married and A'," "It Fell on a Morn when We Were Thrang," "Fy, Let Us A' to the Wedding," "Hooly and Fairly," "The Weary Pund O' Tow," "Tam O' the Lin," "The Wee Pickle Tow," "The Lover's Watch," "Poverty Parts Good Company," and "Saw Ye Johnny Comin." For Tytler's and Watson's introduction to the poems, see Secondary/Biography/Nineteenth, below.

130

Uphaus, Robert W. and Gretchen M. Foster, ed. The "Other" Eighteenth Century: English Women of Letters, 1660-1800. East Lansing: Colleagues, 1991. 343-58.

Prints excerpts from the Introductory Discourse from the 1799 second edition of A Series of Plays.

131

Ward, Thomas Humphry, ed. The English Poets: Selections with Critical Introductions by Various Writers. 5 vols. London: Macmillan, 1880. 4:221-6.

Prints "The Chough and Crow," "The Fisherman's Song," "They who may tell love's wistful tale," and "Woo'd and Married and A'." For the annotation of the "Critical Introduction," see Robinson, Secondary/Critical, below.

132

White, Guy Wallace, ed. http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/guy.white/linesto.htm 10 August 1998. [no longer available]

Reprints "Lines to Agnes Baillie on Her Birthday."

133

—-. http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/guy.white/thunder.htm 10 August 1998. [no longer available]

Contains "Thunder."

134

Wu, Duncan, ed. Romantic Women Poets: An Anthology. Oxford: Blackwell, 1997. 254-60.

Prints "The gowan glitters on the sward," "What voice is this, thou evening gale," and "Tam o' the Lin."

135

—-. Romanticism: An Anthology. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1998. 153-54.

Prints a brief passage from the Introductory Discourse

3. Letters

a. Letters Written by Baillie
Major Collections
136

*Lambertson, Chester Lee, ed. "The Letters of Joanna Baillie (1801-1832)." Diss. Harvard University, 1956. American Doctoral Dissertations (1956).

137

Slagle, Judith Bailey. The Collected Letters of Joanna Baillie. 2 vols. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson UP, 1998.

Covers over 800 of Baillie's previously unpublished letters to various correspondents, including Mary Berry, Lady Byron, John Gibson Lockhart, Sir Walter Scott, George Thomson, and family members.

Published in Collections or Journals
138

Douglas, David, ed. Familiar Letters of Sir Walter Scott. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Douglas, 1894.

Prints eight letters from Baillie to Scott; subjects include reactions to Scott's House of Aspen, Rokeby, and The Bride of Lammermoor, impressions upon meeting Maria Edgeworth, Abbotsford, the separation of Lord and Lady Byron, and Byron's Giaour. Also prints several letters from Scott to Baillie, see this section, below.

139

Hill, Constance. Maria Edgeworth and Her Circle in the Days of Buonaparte and Bourbon. London and New York: Lane, 1910.

For annotation, see Secondary/Biography/Twentieth, below.

140

Lambertson, C[hester] L[ee], ed. "Speaking of Byron." Malahat Review 12 (1969): 18-42; 13 (1970): 24-46.

Includes nine letters in volume twelve; subjects include Byron's Corsair, Byron's appreciation of De Monfort and his influence at Drury Lane, Scott's trip to France and subsequent poem on Waterloo, the Byrons' separation, and the future marriage of Baillie's niece. Presents seven letters in volume thirteen; subjects include Baillie's trip to Europe with her niece, the characters of Lord and Lady Byron, contemporary writers such as Byron and Edgeworth, publishing poetry, and Scott's reactions to and Baillie's revisions of "Christopher Columbus."

141

MacPherson, Gerardine. Memoirs of the Life of Anna Jameson. London: Longmans, 1878.

Reprints three letters from Baillie to Jameson which include favorable comments on Jameson's "Winter Studies," expressions of sorrow concerning the death of a Dr. Channing, and laments for the moral state of Scotland. For MacPherson's impressions of Baillie, see MacPherson, Secondary/Biography/Nineteenth, below.

142

O'Reilly, W. H., ed. "Unpublished Letters of Joanna Baillie to a Dumfriesshire Laird." Dumfriesshire and Galloway Natural History and Antiquarian Society: Transactions and Journal of Proceedings 18 (1934): 10-27.

Contains eleven letters (ranging from 1821 to 1827) from Baillie to General Alexander Dirom, a military leader, author, and friend. Subjects include mutual friends, invitations to visit, and literary matters such as: Baillie's thanks to Dirom for kind words about her Metrical Legends and The Martyr, her positive feedback on Dirom's own work, a discussion of Baillie's meetings with the publisher, Longman, on Dirom's behalf, a mention of Ahalya Baee as a "perfect female character," and a solicitation to Dirom for a poem to include in her 1823 A Collection of Poems, Chiefly Manuscript.

143

Partington, Wilfred, ed. The Private Letter-Books of Sir Walter Scott: Selections from the Abbotsford Manuscripts, with a Letter to the Reader from Hugh Walpole. London: Hodden and Stoughton; New York: Stokes, 1930.

Includes three letters by Baillie in which she discusses her niece's impending marriage, Guy Mannering, recent theatrical productions, and Scott's Life of Napoleon.

144

—-. Sir Walter's Post-Bag: More Stories and Sidelights from His Unpublished Letters. London: Murray, 1932.

Presents extracts from several of Baillie's letters; subjects include William Wordsworth and Robert Southey, reactions to The Knight of Snowdon, London, her thoughts about producing an economical version of The Family Legend, the preservation of national forests, a French memorial to Voltaire, Lady and Lord Byron, Charles I, daily life, Scott's baronetcy, payment for poetry, and the journey from Abbotsford to London.

145

Sutton, Denys, ed. "Joanna Baillie and Sir George Beaumont, Bart." Notes and Queries 174 (1938): 146-48.

Includes three letters from Baillie to Sir George Beaumont in which Baillie solicits Beaumont's influence to help a Mr. Bell's election to the Royal Academy.

b. Letters Written to Baillie
146

Colvin, Christina E. "Maria Edgeworth's Tours in Ireland, II. Killarney." Studia Neophilologica 43 (1971): 252-56.

Prints a letter from Edgeworth which details an 1825 journey she made with Sir Walter Scott, John Gibson Lockhart, Anne Scott, Captain Walter Scott, his wife, and Harriet Edgeworth. Details stops made in Killarney, Cork, Mallow, and Cashell. Calls Scott "the most agreeable companion possible."

147

Dibdin, James C. The Annals of the Edinburgh Stage, with an Account of the Rise and Progress of Dramatic Writing in Scotland. Edinburgh: Cameron, 1888.

Reproduces passages from two of Sir Walter Scott's letters concerning the production of The Family Legend.

148

Douglas, David, ed. Familiar Letters of Sir Walter Scott. 2 vols. Edinburgh: Douglas, 1894.

Presents several letters from Scott to Baillie; subjects include Scott's estimation of Francis Jeffrey, production of The Family Legend, dramatization of The Lady of the Lake, Abbotsford and renovations to it, Anna Barbauld, Charles I, Baillie's change from "Miss" to "Mrs.," the Byrons and their separation, Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, Maria Edgeworth's Harrington and Ormond, the death of Scott's mother, and Scott's contribution to Baillie's A Collection of Poems, Chiefly Manuscript.

149

Lockhart, John Gibson. The Life of Sir Walter Scott. 10 vols. Edinburgh: Constable, 1903.

Presents several letters from Scott to Baillie; subjects include mutual literary friends, Scott's plans to visit Baillie in London, production of and reaction to The Family Legend, Scott's visit to Lady Rock and the surrounding Highland area, Scott's literary work, his critiques of A Series of Plays—especially volume three, Edinburgh and London society, Byron's Childe Harold's Pilgrimage, British royalty, and life at Abbotsford.

150

Plarr, Victor C. "Sir Walter Scott and Joanna Baillie." Edinburgh Review 216 (1912): 355-71; 217 (1913): 170-81.

Prints several letters from Sir Walter Scott to Joanna Baillie in volume 216; subjects include the Edinburgh production of The Family Legend, suggestions for minor revisions to the play, criticism of most of the actors, and details of the play's public reception. Prints seven letters in volume 217; details include Scott's illness, his appeal to Matthew Baillie for treatment, composition of the Waverly novels, and reactions to drafts of Baillie's The Martyr and her "witchcraft story" [Witchcraft].

C. Manuscripts

1. Published Works

151

Note: In this section and the next, I have included listings only for complete plays or collections with more than one work. Individual poems or letters are not included. For more information on Baillie manuscripts, see David C. Sutton, ed. Location Register of English Literary Manuscripts and Letters: Eighteenth and Nineteenth Centuries. London: British Library, 1995.

152

*The Beacon: A Serious Musical Drama in Two Acts. Ms. 1846. Henry E. Huntington Library, Larpent Collection of Plays. California, United States. http://www.huntington.org/LibraryDiv/LibraryHome.html

153

*Constantine Paleologus. Ms. 1557. Henry E. Huntington Library, Larpent Collection of Plays. California, United States. http://www.huntington.org/LibraryDiv/LibraryHome.html

154

*The Family Legend: A Tragedy. Ms. Press V, Shelf I. Abbotsford Library. Edinburgh, Scotland.

155

*[Miscellaneous Papers]. Henry W. and Albert A. Berg Collection of English and American Literature. New York Public Library. New York, United States. http://www.nypl.org/research/chss/spe/brg/berg.html and http://www.nypl.org/.

The catalog gives no manuscript numbers but states that the collection holds holograph revisions for De Monfort, manuscripts for "Fy, Let Us A' to the Wedding," "On the Death of a Very Dear Friend," and several letters.

156

*Plays: [submitted to the Lord Chamberlain's Office]. Ms. Henry E. Huntington Library, Larpent Collection of Plays. California, United States. http://www.huntington.org/LibraryDiv/LibraryHome.html

The Location Register states that the plays are dated from 1808-1815 but offers neither a manuscript number nor details on which plays.

157

*Plays: [submitted to the Lord Chamberlain's Office]. Ms. 42934-42935. British Library. London, England. http://www.bl.uk/

Again, no specific plays are listed, but as the Index to Manuscripts in the British Library gives the date as 1836, the plays are likely those of Baillie's Dramas, published that same year.

158

*[Poems]. Ms. Vol. 1.44-48, 1.75, and Vol. 2.69. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Hunter-Baillie Collection. London, England. http://www.rcseng.ac.uk/

The Location Register states that these papers include "Lines to Agnes Baillie on Her Birthday," "To James Baillie, an Infant," "Sweet bird of promise, fresh and fair," and a fragment of Ethwald.

2. Unpublished Works

159

*Memoirs Written to Please My Nephew William Baillie. Ms. 5613/68/1-6. Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine. London, England. http://www.asap.unimelb.edu.au/hstm/data/153.htm

160

*Prose Writings. Ms. Vol. 9.10 and 9.68-9. Royal College of Surgeons of England, Hunter-Baillie Collection. London, England. http://www.rcseng.ac.uk/

The Location Register states these writings include "An Old Story," "The Lady and Her Two Maids," and "A Plan of a Comedy," among other items

3. Letters (major collections)

161

Note: This section is meant to provide preliminary information on locations of Baillie's letters; it is not meant to be exhaustive. Rather, I intend only to give a sense of the volume of Baillie's correspondence as well as to point scholars to locations with significant amounts of Baillie materials. For more information regarding Baillie's letters, their locations, and manuscript numbers, see Judith Bailey Slagle, The Collected Letters of Joanna Baillie, listed in Primary/Modern/Letters, above. Thanks to Judith Slagle for sharing information from that work for this section of the bibliography.

162

Bodleian Library. Oxford University, England. http://www.bodley.ox.ac.uk/

Contains letters written between 1814 and 1850, and includes Lady Byron, Mary Montgomery, and the Bishop of Salisbury as corespondents.

163

British Library. London, England. http://www.bl.uk/

Possesses nearly eighty letters (1804-1842) to George Thomson for whom Baillie provided song lyrics.

164

Camden Local Studies and Archives Centre and Swiss Cottage Library. London, England.

Includes letters dating from 1813-1843, for which Margaret Holford Hodson and William Beattie appear as principal correspondents.

165

Edinburgh University Library. Edinburgh, Scotland. http://www.lib.ed.ac.uk/

Owns a dozen letters written to various correspondents, one of whom is Sir Walter Scott.

166

Houghton Library, Harvard University. Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. http://www-hcl.harvard.edu/houghton/

Contains nearly forty letters to Andrews Norton. Subjects include Baillie's opinions on American writers and American editions of her own plays.

167

Huntington Library. California, United States. http://www.huntington.org/LibraryDiv/LibraryHome.html

Includes less than two dozen letters to various recipients.

168

National Library of Scotland. Edinburgh, Scotland. http://www.nls.uk/

Possesses a large number of Baillie's letters, with over 150 to Sir Walter Scott alone; other correspondents include Anne Elliot, Anna Jameson, and John Gibson Lockhart.

169

Royal College of Surgeons. London, England. http://www.rcseng.ac.uk/

Includes letters written between 1821-1851 with such correspondents as William Sotheby, Mary Berry, and family members.

170

University of Glasgow Library. Glasgow, Scotland. http://www.gla.ac.uk/Library/index.html

Contains several letters to Lady Campbell, Baillie's cousin.

171

Wellcome Institute for the History of Medicine. London, England. http://www.asap.unimelb.edu.au/hstm/data/153.htm

Possesses mainly letters to family and Mary Berry.

II. Secondary Works

A. Biography

1. Nineteenth-Century

172

Notes: There were no single volume biographies published during Baillie's life, and only one after her death. The following section lists biographical sketches of Baillie or brief descriptions of events in her life published when she was alive, just after her death, or by those who knew her during her life.

I have placed in this section—and the next—sources which are primarily factual. Many sources do, of course, provide some literary comment along with their depictions of Baillie's life. Those sources included in the following two sections, however, possess a stronger emphasis on Baillie's life rather than her work. Sources possessing a significant element of biography along with a stronger emphasis on critical comment are listed here and cross-referenced to Secondary/Critical, below.

173

Coleridge, Sara. Memoir and Letters of Sara Coleridge. Ed. Edith Coleridge. New York: Harper, 1874.

Contains four letters written after 1830 which refer to Baillie. Describes Baillie's appearance and advanced age, and remarks that Baillie's 1836 Dramas are not as strong as the Plays on the Passions. Expresses loss and grief following Baillie's death.

174

Cone, Helen Gray and Jeannette L. Gilder, ed. Pen-Portraits of Literary Women. 2 vols. Boston: Educational Publishing, 1900. 1:223-41.

Reproduces descriptions of Baillie and appraisals of her work. Includes passages by Sarah Tytler and J. L. Watson, John Gibson Lockhart, Sara Coleridge, and Harriet Martineau.

175

"Death of Joanna Baillie." Littell's Living Age 29 (1851): 218.

Provides an overview of Baillie's life and literary career and emphasizes the genius of A Series of Plays and their lack of theatrical success.

176

Edgeworth, Maria. Letters from England, 1813-1844. Ed. Christina Colvin. Oxford: Clarendon, 1971.

Contains no letters to Baillie, but gives several of Edgeworth's letters in which Baillie appears. Subjects include: Edgeworth's visits with Baillie and her sister Agnes (several letters are written from their home), the sisters' hospitality, a trip with Baillie to see Anna Barbauld, a dinner party at which Baillie danced, the Baillie sisters' care for an ailing cat, the many visitors to the Baillies' home, and the sisters' consistent kindness. Calls Baillie "the most amiable literary woman I ever beheld."

177

Farrar, [Eliza]. Recollections of Seventy Years. Boston: Ticknor and Fields, 1866.

Details a meeting with Baillie, and notes Baillie's grace, tact, and attention to guests. Recalls a story about Baillie and her sister attending the opera with Lord Byron.

178

Fawcett, Millicent Garrett. Some Eminent Women of Our Times: Short Biographical Sketches. London and New York: Macmillan, 1889.

For annotation, see Secondary/Critical, below.

179

Hamilton, Catherine J. Women Writers: Their Works and Ways. First Series. 1892. Essay Index Reprint Series. Freeport: Books for Libraries, 1971.

For annotation, see Secondary/Critical, below.

180

Hutton, Laurence. Literary Landmarks of London. 4th ed. Boston: Ticknor, 1888.

Describes both homes in which Baillie lived while in London, including their location and appearance. Also notes Baillie's burial place in Hampstead Churchyard."

181

Lord Jeffrey and Joanna Baillie." International Monthly Magazine of Literature, Art, and Science 3 (1851): 312.

Gives a brief account of Baillie's friendship with Jeffrey, including her initial refusal to be introduced to him and their friendship in later years.

182

MacPherson, Gerardine. Memoirs of the Life of Anna Jameson. London: Longmans, 1878.

Recounts a childhood visit by the author (Jameson's niece) to see Baillie, noting her kindness and simplicity. Reprints three letters from Baillie to Jameson; for annotation, see Primary/Modern/Letters, above.

183

Martineau, Harriet. Harriet Martineau's Autobiography. 2 vols. 6th ed. Ed. Maria Weston Chapman. Boston: Osgood, 1877.

Describes a brief meeting with Baillie, noting her patience and perseverance.

184

"Obituaries." Harper's New Monthly Magazine 2 (1851): 709.

For annotation, see Secondary/Critical, below.

185

Robinson, Henry Crabbe. Diary, Reminiscences, and Correspondence. Ed. Thomas Sadler. Boston: Houghton, 1876.

Brief references to Baillie note her kindness and intellect. Provides the story relating Wordsworth's often quoted description of Baillie as the "model of an English gentlewoman."

186

Sigourney, L. H. Pleasant Memories of Pleasant Lands. Boston: Munroe, 1842.

Tells of a visit to see Baillie whom the author found, at age 73, to be lively and unfatigued by a walk in the cold.

187

Sprague, William B. Visits to European Celebrities. Boston: Gould and Lincoln, 1855.

Briefly describes the author's visit to Baillie when the latter was 72. Notes her preference for the Scottish church over the English one and her devotion to family. Concludes that Baillie is a "compound of intelligence, loveliness, and venerable simplicity."

188

Tappan, Henry P. Illustrious Personages of the Nineteenth Century. New York: Stringer and Townsend, 1853.

Provides a biographical chapter on Baillie with a focus on family members not found in many other sources. Praises Baillie's moral example, Christian faith, and her clear and forceful style. Also states that Baillie's plays are "better suited to the sober perusal of the closet than the bustle and animation of the theatre."

189

Ticknor, George. Life, Letters, and Journals of George Ticknor. 2 vols. Boston: Osgood, 1876.

Narrates the author's 1835 introduction to Baillie, and describes her as living "exactly as an English gentlewoman of her age and character should live." Also briefly notes an 1838 meeting during which Baillie spoke kindly of Sir Walter Scott and John Gibson Lockhart.

190

Tytler, Sarah and J. L. Watson. The Songstresses of Scotland. London: Strahan, 1871. 2:180-34.

Provides a detailed biography of Baillie's life with special emphasis on Baillie's early life and her friendships with Sir Walter Scott and Mary Berry. Also reprints several of Baillie's poems; for list, see Primary/Modern/Non-Dramatic/Selected, above.

191

Waller, John Francis. "Leaves from the Portfolio of a Manager, No. IV: Joanna Baillie." Dublin University Magazine 37 (1851): 529-36.

For annotation, see Secondary/Critical, below.

2. Twentieth-Century

192

Note: In this section, I have included several, though by no means all, biographies of Sir Walter Scott. Although Baillie appears in many biographies of Scott, authors often only note in passing that she corresponded with Scott or that Scott helped stage The Family Legend. I have not listed those biographies of Scott which do not consider Baillie in further detail.

193

Buchan, John. Sir Walter Scott. London, Toronto, and Melbourne: Cassell, 1932.

Mentions Baillie as one of Sir Walter Scott's correspondents. Notes that Baillie once cared for Sophia Scott when her parents visited London.

194

Carhart, Margaret S. The Life and Works of Joanna Baillie. Yale Studies in English 64. New Haven: Yale UP, 1923.

Offers the only full length biography of Baillie. Divides the book into six sections: "The Life of Joanna Baillie," "Literary Background," "Dramatic Theory," "Stage History," "Non-Dramatic Poetry," and "Joanna Baillie's Place in Literature." In "Life," emphasizes Baillie's literary milieux and her religion. In "Literary Background," traces both past and contemporary influences on Baillie's work, including contemporary history books, Greek drama, Robert Burns, and Shakespeare, while in "Dramatic Theory," heavily quotes and paraphrases Baillie's Introductory Discourse. In "Stage History," details dates of performances, provides cast lists, surveys public reception, and notes revisions made during rehearsals for several of Baillie's plays. In "Non-Dramatic Poetry," offers a cursory look at main themes in Baillie's poetry. In the final chapter, concludes that Baillie "stands to-day as the greatest Scotch dramatist."

195

Carswell, Donald. Sir Walter: A Four Part Study in Biography (Scott, Hogg, Lockhart, Joanna Baillie). London: Murray, 1930.

Provides a chapter on Baillie's life. Emphasizes her family—especially her father and brother —and her early life. Details William Sotheby's introduction of Baillie to Sir Walter Scott and the subsequent friendship between the latter two. Also considers the literary stir caused by A Series of Plays, Scott's negative reaction to Baillie's A View of the General Tenour . . ., and Baillie's old age. Suggests that Baillie never achieved acclaim beyond the literati, and asserts that praise of her work resulted from Baillie's dramatic ideas, not her execution of them in her plays. Maintains that her plays, always thought to be unstageable, are, in the twentieth century, "not even readable."

196

Hill, Constance. Maria Edgeworth and Her Circle in the Days of Buonaparte and Bourbon. London and New York: Lane, 1910.

Discusses the friendship between Maria Edgeworth and Baillie, and prints Baillie's letter regarding her first impressions of Edgeworth. Tells of Edgeworth's 1818 extended visit with the Baillies, a public reading of one of Baillie's plays, and a dinner party at a Mr. and Mrs. Carr's. Also includes comments on Baillie by Sir Walter Scott, Lucy Aiken, and Anna Barbauld.

197

Johnson, Edgar. Sir Walter Scott: The Great Unknown. 2 vols. New York: Macmillan, 1970.

Gives attention to the Edinburgh production of The Family Legend and the subsequent revival of De Monfort. Presents reactions from those who attended The Family Legend, including Scott, David Hume, and Robert Blair. Also notes briefly Baillie's unsuccessful appeals for Scott to intervene in the Byrons' separation. Discusses Scott's struggle to write a poem for Baillie's A Collection of Poems, Chiefly Manuscript.

198

Lockhart, John Gibson. The Life of Sir Walter Scott. 10 vols. Edinburgh: Constable, 1903.

Examines Baillie's friendship with Scott; details include their first meeting and Baillie's initial reaction to Scott, Baillie's visit to Abbotsford, The Family Legend and Scott's appraisals of it, and Scott's reactions to Baillie's other work, including Orra and her poetry.

199

MacCunn, Florence. Sir Walter Scott's Friends. London: Blackwood, 1909; New York: Lane, 1910.

Argues that Baillie was an original thinker whose sheltered life harmed the realism of her depictions of the passions. Details Baillie's family history and her literary friends. Gives special attention to Scott's friendship with Baillie, and argues that his praise of her is overgenerous.

200

McKerrow, Mary. "Joanna Baillie and Mary Brunton: Women of the Manse." Living by the Pen: Early British Women Writers. Ed. Dale Spender. Athene Series. New York: Teachers College, 1992. 160-74.

Offers a brief literary biography, and notes the publications of Baillie's works. Asserts that Baillie's greatest achievement was to write wide-ranging tragedies depicting the varieties of human passion while living "a relatively sheltered life." Discusses Baillie's anxiety regarding her participation in the male literary world.

201

Pearson, Hesketh. Sir Walter Scott: His Life and Personality. New York: Harper, 1954. Rpt. London: Hamilton, 1987.

For annotation, see Secondary/Critical, below.

202

Sutherland, John. The Life of Sir Walter Scott: A Critical Biography. Oxford and Cambridge (MA): Blackwell, 1995.

States that Scott attempted to promote Baillie "as Scotland's greatest living dramatist." Also describes Scott's efforts to produce The Family Legend, and notes his persuasion of Baillie to release production rights and his participation in rehearsals.

3. Biographical Dictionaries

203

Note: In this section, I have limited listings to the most recent edition of a particular title. As such, although each edition of, for example, The Oxford Illustrated Literary Guide to Great Britain and Ireland includes Baillie, only the second is listed here.

204

Adams, W. Davenport. Dictionary of English Literature, Being a Comprehensive Guide to English Authors and Their Works. 2nd ed. London, Paris, and New York: Cassell, Petter, and Galpin, 1884. Rpt. Detroit: Gale, 1966. 50.

205

Allibone, S. Austin, ed. A Critical Dictionary of English Literature, and British and American Authors, Living and Deceased, from the Earliest Accounts to the Middle Half of the Nineteenth Century. 3 vols. Philadelphia: Childs, 1863. 1:100-01.

206

Baker, David Erskine, Isaac Reed, and Stephen Jones. Biographica Dramatica; or A Companion to the Playhouse. 3 vols. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, Orme, and Brown, 1812. 1:15.

207

Barnhart, Clarence L., ed. The New Century Handbook of English Literature. Rev. ed. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts, 1967. 82.

208

Blain, Virginia, Patricia Clements, and Isobel Grundy, ed. The Feminist Companion to Literature in English: Women Writers from the Middle Ages to the Present. New Haven: Yale UP, 1990. 50-1.

209

Bold, Alan, ed. Scotland: A Literary Guide. London: Routledge, 1989. 45-46.

210

Browning, D. C., comp. Everyman's Dictionary of Literary Biography, English and American. Rev. ed. Everyman's Reference Library. London: Dent; New York: Dutton, 1962. 30.

211

Buck, Claire, ed. The Bloomsbury Guide to Women's Literature. New York: Prentice Hall, 1992. 312.

212

Concise Dictionary of National Biography. London: Oxford UP, [1961]. 47.

213

de Ford, Miriam Allen. "Baillie, Joanna." British Authors of the Nineteenth Century. Ed. Stanley J. Kunitz. New York: Wilson, 1936. 28-30.

214

Door, Priscilla. "Joanna Baillie." An Encyclopedia of British Women Writers. Ed. Paul Schlueter and June Schlueter. New York and London: Garland, 1988. 15-16.

215

Drabble, Margaret, ed. The Oxford Companion to English Literature. Rev. ed. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1995. 60-1.

216

Drabble, Margaret and Jenny Stringer, ed. The Concise Oxford Companion to English Literature. Rev. ed. Oxford Paperback Reference. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1996. 35.

217

Eagle, Dorothy, ed. The Concise Oxford Dictionary of English Literature. 2nd ed. Oxford: Clarendon, 1970. 33.

218

Eagle, Dorothy, and Hilary Carnell, comp. and ed. The Oxford Literary Guide to the British Isles. 2nd ed. Ed. Eagle and Meic Stephens. Oxford and New York: Oxford UP, 1992. 157-58.

219

Lindsay, Maurice. "Baillie, Joanna." Reference Guide to English Literature. 2nd ed. 3 vols. Ed. D. L. Kirkpatrick. St. James Reference Guides. Chicago and London: St James, 1991. 1:197-98.

220

Maison, Margaret. "Baillie, Joanna." British Women Writers: A Critical Reference Guide. Ed. Janet Todd. New York: Ungar-Continuum, 1989. 29-33.

221

Mann, David D., Susan Garland Mann, and Camille Garnier. Women Playwrights in England, Ireland, and Scotland, 1660-1823. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1996. 45-47.

222

Morley, Frank. Literary Britain: A Reader's Guide to Its Writers and Landmarks. New York: Harper, 1980. 453-54.

223

Ousby, Ian, ed. The Cambridge Guide to Literature in English. Rev. ed. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1993. 52.

224

Ross, Marlon B. "Joanna Baillie." British Romantic Poets, 1789-1832: First Series. Ed. John R. Greenfield. Dictionary of Literary Biography 93. Detroit: Bruccoli Clark-Gale, 1990. 3-15.

225

Royle, Trevor. Companion to Scottish Literature. Detroit: Gale, 1983. 16. Rpt. of The Macmillan Companion to Scottish Literature. London: Macmillan, 1983.

226

—-. The Macmillan Companion to Scottish Literature. London: Macmillan, 1983. 16.

227

—-. Mainstream Companion to Scottish Literature. Edinburgh: Mainstream, 1993. 16.

228

Sampson, George. The Concise Cambridge History of English Literature. 3rd ed. Ed. R. C. Churchill. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1970. 497, 535.

229

Schnorrenberg, Barbara Brandon. "Joanna Baillie." A Dictionary of British and American Writers, 1660-1800. Ed. Janet Todd. London: Methuen, 1984. 35-36.

230

Shattock, Joanne, ed. The Oxford Guide to British Women Writers. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1993. 20-1.

231

Smith, George Bennet. "Baillie, Joanna." The Dictionary of National Biography. 24 vols. Ed. Leslie Stephen and Sidney Lee. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1917. 1:886-89.

232

Uglow, Jennifer S., ed. The Continuum Dictionary of Women's Biography. New Expanded ed. New York: Continuum, 1989. 42.

233

Watt, Homer A. and William W. Watt. A Handbook of English Literature. Everyday Handbook. New York: Barnes and Noble, 1959. 16. Rpt. of A Dictionary of English Literature. 1945.

234

Webster's New Biographical Dictionary. Springfield: Merriam-Webster, 1983. 67.

235

Wynne-Davies, Marion, ed. Prentice Hall Guide to English Literature. New York: Prentice Hall, 1990. 335.

B. Critical Interpretations

236

Note: In this section, I have included reviews for books which contain at least a full chapter about Baillie. In addition, I have only included reviews which specifically mention Baillie. For example, Ellen Donkin's Getting into the Act has several more reviews than those listed, but the reviews not listed do not consider Donkin's treatment of Baillie.

237

"Autographs." Mirror of Literature, Amusement, and Instruction 13 (1831): 145-47.

Reproduces Baillie's autograph along with those of other "Eminent Persons," including Felicia Hemans, Percy Bysshe Shelley, and William Wordsworth. Briefly suggests that Baillie's strong and firm handwriting "lacks the delicate feebleness of a lady's writing."

238

Badstuber, Alfred. Joanna Baillie's Plays on the Passions. Wiener Beiträge zur Englischen Philologie 34. Wien: Braumüller, 1911.

Provides individual commentary on each of the Plays on the Passions, with especial attention to De Monfort as "probably the best" of the thirteen. Includes brief introductory sections on Baillie's life and her dramatic theory, and concludes with a critical estimate of the place A Series of Plays occupies in English literature.

239

Boaden, James. Memoirs of the Life of John Philip Kemble. 2 vols. London: Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green, 1825. Rpt. New York and London: Blom, 1969.

In a brief section, describes John Philip Kemble's desire to produce and act in De Monfort. Commends Kemble's acting, but criticizes the conflict between De Monfort and Rezenvelt as too slight for serious drama.

240

Bold, Valentina. "Beyond 'The Empire of the Gentle Heart': Scottish Women Poets of the Nineteenth Century." A History of Scottish Women's Writing. Ed. Douglas Gifford and Dorothy McMillan. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1997. 246-61.

Briefly considers Baillie's poetry, and states that, although contemporaries overrated her poetry, they believed that Baillie produced a "moral influence" on literature.

241

Booth, Michael, ed. Introduction. English Plays of the Nineteenth Century. 5 vols. Oxford: Oxford UP, 1969. 1:1-28.

Portrays Baillie as representative of Gothic melodrama. Asserts that Baillie's verse often deteriorates into "leisurely poetry for its own sake" and that De Monfort and Henriquez display the characteristic emotional excesses of Romantic theatre.

242

Booth, Michael. Prefaces to English Nineteenth-Century Theatre. Manchester: Manchester UP, 1980.

Reprints the Introduction from English Plays of the Nineteenth Century, above.

243

Brewer, William D. "Joanna Baillie and Lord Byron." Keats-Shelley Journal 44 (1995): 165-81.

Examines the biographical and literary connections between Baillie and Byron, and argues that their literary relationship explains Byron's "attitudes towards the roles of gender and power in female literary production." Explores Byron's admiration for and support of Baillie, and links this respect to Baillie's ability to create masculine protagonists such as Ethwald, Basil, and De Monfort. Suggests that through these characters, Baillie influences Byron's Manfred and Marino Faliero.

244

—-. "The Prefaces of Joanna Baillie and William Wordsworth." Friend: Comment on Romanticism. 1.2-3 (1991-92): 34-47.

Argues that although Baillie's Introductory Discourse shares similarities with William Wordsworth's Preface of 1800, Baillie avoids Wordsworth's "masculinist focus on the introspective process of an individual poet." Asserts that Baillie and Wordsworth advocate both the use of a simple style to depict common events and also the portrayal of the passions as motivation for human behavior. Shows that Baillie focuses on connecting with her audience while Wordsworth emphasizes the poet's independent and isolated mind. Drawing on the theories of Carol Gilligan and Nancy Chodorow, argues that this contrast derives from the gender difference between the two authors.

245

Burroughs, Catherine B. Closet Stages: Joanna Baillie and the Theater Theory of British Romantic Women Writers. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1997.

Explores early nineteenth-century British women writers' representations of themselves, of other women, and their theories on the theatrical representation of women to show the influence contemporary gender expectations produced on dramatic practice. Uses Baillie as a representative female theatre theorist to demonstrate "the problems women theorists encounter when moving from 'the closet' to engage critics in public space." Emphasizes Baillie's dramatic and theoretical work as a means to examine her negotiation of self and gender representation in public and domestic spheres. States that Baillie's concern with depicting scenes from the closet connects with her desire to create intimate contact with the audience, her participation in and depiction of private theatricals, and her wish to alter theatre construction. Considers De Monfort, Basil, and The Tryal in detail.

Reviews:

  • Dowd, Maureen A. Theatre Journal 50 (1998): 134-36.

  • Carlson, Julie. Romantic Circles Reviews. http://www.rc.umd.edu/reviews/burroughs.html

  • * Crochunis, Thomas C. "On Judith Pascoe, Romantic Theatricality: Gender, Poetry, and Spectatorship; William Jewett, Fatal Autonomy: Romantic Drama and the Rhetoric of Agency; Catherine B. Burroughs, Closet Stages: Joanna Baillie and the Theater Theory of British Romantic Women Writers." Romanticism On the Net 12 (November 1998): n. pag. Online. Internet. 005823ar.html

246

—-. "The English Romantic Closet: Women Theatre Artists, Joanna Baillie, and Basil." Nineteenth-Century Contexts 19 (1995): 125-49.

Argues that Basil explores a woman's participation in both "the informal stage of private life and the public arena of formal theatres." Drawing on the writings of Lord Byron and Mary Russell Mitford, shows that female playwrights and actors were caught between the societal conditioning for women to withdraw from attention and a personal desire to work under the public gaze in the theatre. Asserts that Basil's Victoria attempts "to experiment with the performance of femininity" in private and public spaces and that Basil himself can neither negotiate nor differentiate the public and private arenas. Appears in a revised version as part of chapter four in Closet Stages.

247

—-. "English Romantic Women Writers and Theatre Theory: Joanna Baillie's Prefaces to the Plays on the Passions." Re-visioning Romanticism: British Women Writers, 1776-1837. Ed. Carol Shiner Wilson and Joel Haefner. Philadelphia: U of Pennsylvania P, 1994. 274-96.

Asserts that Baillie's focus on "the potentiality of 'the closet'" anticipates modern feminist theatre. Following a survey of the theatre theories of Mary Wollstonecraft and Mary Russell Mitford, argues that Baillie attempts to create "a drama that actually dramatizes scenes from a character's closet," and hopes to foreground the domestic sphere and the feminine experience. Shows that Baillie's theatrical preferences, such as smaller stages, less over-emotive acting, and better lighting share affinities with contemporary feminist and lesbian theatre, for these conditions help create a more personal and intimate environment. Further states that both Baillie and contemporary feminist and lesbian writers make women's lives the center of their dramas. Appears in a revised version as chapter three of Closet Stages.

248

—-. "Joanna Baillie's Poetic Aesthetic: Passion and 'the Plain Order of Things.'" Approaches to Teaching British Women Poets of the Romantic Period. Ed. Stephen C. Behrendt and Harriet Kramer Linkin. Approaches to Teaching World Literature. New York: MLA, 1997. 135-40.

Claims that like her dramas, Baillie's poems focus on the domestic closet as a mirror of societal conflicts. States that "Lines to a Teapot" concerns both the slave trade and the marriage market. Maintains that emphasizing the conflict inherent in domestic life, as Baillie does, helps students better understand the relationship between their educations and their lives.

249

—-. "'Out of the Pale of Social Kindred Cast': Conflicted Performance Styles in Joanna Baillie's De Monfort." Romantic Women Writers: Voices and Countervoices. Ed. Paula R. Feldman and Theresa M. Kelley. Hanover: UP of New England, 1995. 223-35.

Argues that through the characters of Jane De Monfort and De Monfort, respectively, Baillie sets the Neoclassic acting style, here termed "statuesque stasis," against German Romanticism's "emotive" technique. Claims that De Monfort represents an anti-social force because he wishes to disrupt the interactions of polite society, which Baillie portrays most clearly through Jane De Monfort and Rezenvelt. States that Jane's and De Monfort's struggle to negotiate complex human relationships and gender roles mirrors Baillie's artistic efforts to create a drama of the private domestic realm also appropriate for the public stage. Appears in a revised version as part of chapter four in Closet Stages.

250

—-. "'A Reasonable Woman's Desire': The Private Theatrical and Joanna Baillie's The Tryal." Texas Studies in Literature and Language 38 (1996): 265-84.

Places The Tryal in the context of privately produced plays, and states that such productions allowed women to participate in the theatre as directors and stage managers. Claims that Agnes, by directing the private play within The Tryal, attempts "to dramatize domestic space" as a way "to control the representation of women's social reality." Asserts that Withrington acts as a masculine model who views private theatricals as destabilizing the domestic feminine space. Appears in a revised version as chapter five of Closet Stages.

251

Cameron, Alasdair. "Scottish Drama in the Nineteenth Century." The History of Scottish Literature. Ed. Douglas Gifford. 4 vols. Aberdeen: Aberdeen UP, 1988. 3: 429-442.

Places Baillie among the foremost nineteenth-century Scottish dramatists, but argues that Baillie's plays suffer from an "awkward, overblown, and anglicized poetic style, which is rarely fitted to the subject." Criticizes Baillie's inconsistent use of Scots in The Phantom, but allows that in Witchcraft, Baillie employs a more authentic and vibrant use of Scots.

252

Campbell, Thomas. Life of Mrs. Siddons. London: Wilson, 1839. Rpt. New York: Blom, 1972.

States that although De Monfort is pleasurable to read, the dramatic efforts of Sarah Siddons, John Philip Kemble, and Edmund Kean could not rescue the play from theatrical failure. Attributes Baillie's lack of success in production to her insufficient practical theatre experience. Briefly describes the sets of the original production, and notes the author's own positive reaction to Kean's 1821 revival.

253

Carhart, Margaret S. The Life and Works of Joanna Baillie. Yale Studies in English 64. New Haven: Yale UP, 1923.

For annotation, see Secondary/Biography/Twentieth, above.

254

Carswell, Donald. Sir Walter: A Four Part Study in Biography (Scott, Hogg, Lockhart, Joanna Baillie). London: Murray, 1930.

For annotation, see Secondary/Biography/Twentieth, above.

255

"Celebrated Female Writers, No. 1: Joanna Baillie." Blackwood's Edinburgh Magazine 16 (1824): 162-78.

Responds to the Edinburgh Review's negative review of the Plays on the Passions (from 1803, for citation, see Primary/Contemporary/Dramatic Works, above). Praises Baillie's genius as "inferior to no individual['s]" of the time, and credits Baillie's Introductory Discourse with reforming and saving poetics and drama from the "dull monotony" of contemporary conventions. Defends Baillie's preference for character and mental action over plot as well as her design to center a play around a single passion. Reprints extracts and/or provides brief critical comments for Count Basil, De Monfort, Ethwald, Rayner, Orra, The Dream, and Constantine Paleologus, calling the last Baillie's "very finest" play.

256

Cox, Jeffrey N. In the Shadows of Romance: Romantic Tragic Drama in Germany, England, and France. Athens: Ohio UP, 1987.

In the fifth chapter, briefly considers A Series of Plays as the nineteenth century's "most concerted attempt to ground tragedy in psychology." Argues that because Baillie wishes to conserve the moral and didactic potential of tragedy, she creates an unresolvable conflict between sympathizing with and judgment of passionate characters. Considers Orra and De Monfort.

257

—-, ed. Introduction. Seven Gothic Dramas, 1789-1825. Athens: Ohio UP, 1992.

Drawing on records of Sarah Siddons' portrayal of Jane De Monfort, argues that Baillie critiques Gothic conventions and gender stereotypes. Asserts that the tensions between Jane and the male characters of De Monfort frustrate audience expectations for an emotive yet passive woman. Places Baillie within the Gothic genre while showing how she works against the restrictive roles for women within that genre.

Reviews:

  • Lindsay, David W. Review of English Studies ns 46 (1995): 281-82.

  • Patten, Janice E. Theatre Journal 45 (1993): 562-64.

  • Varma, Devendra. Byron Journal 21 (1993): 105-07.

258

*Crochunis, Thomas C. "The Function of the Dramatic Closet at the Present Time." Romanticism On the Net 12 (November 1998): n. pag. Online. Internet. 005820ar.html

259

Curran, Stuart. "Romantic Poetry: The I Altered." Romanticism and Feminism. Ed. Anne K. Mellor. Bloomington: Indiana UP, 1988. 185-207.

Asserts that a masculine bias in Romantic studies has caused the marginalization of women writers such as Anna Barbauld and Charlotte Smith. Uses Baillie as a representative example of a highly published woman writer now largely forgotten by the academic community. Argues that of all texts, Baillie's A Series of Plays "exerted the most direct practical and theoretical force" on Romantic drama.

260

*Davis, Tracy C. "The Sociable Playwright and Representative Citizen". Romanticism On the Net 12 (November 1998). n. pag. Online. Internet. 005818ar.html

261

Donkin, Ellen. Getting into the Act: Women Playwrights in London, 1776 - 1829. London: Routledge, 1995.

In the final chapter, traces reasons for Baillie's literary rise and subsequent decline. Argues that Baillie's anonymous publication—which concealed her sex—played a large role in her initial popularity. Asserts that Richard Sheridan's reluctance to stage Baillie's plays, Baillie's consistent refusal to attend rehearsals, and male critics' bias against women playwrights all contributed to her fall from public favor.

Reviews:

  • Engle, Sherry D. Theatre Journal 48 (1996): 531-33.

  • Scullion, Adrienne. Theatre Research International 21 (1996): 264-65.

262

Donohue, Joseph W., Jr. Dramatic Character in the English Romantic Age. Princeton: Princeton UP, 1970.

In a chapter on "Romantic Heroism," portrays Baillie as a dramatic reformer who anticipates modern theatrical practice. Drawing on examples from De Monfort, argues that by presenting evil passion as an aspect of the soul rather than as a facet of fate, Baillie "effected . . . a transformation in the nature of dramatic character." Claims that Baillie's canonical exclusion results from a lack of audience acceptance of her radical innovations.

263

—-. Theatre in the Age of Kean. Drama and Theatre Studies. Totowa: Rowan and Littlefield, 1975.

States that, along with Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Wordsworth, Baillie holds the view that a connection exists between human nature and action. Claims that Baillie's dramaturgy, as expressed in the Introductory Discourse, remains "essentially untheatrical" as evidenced by the limited production of her plays. Asserts that De Monfort marks a moment of innovation for nineteenth-century Gothic drama because in the play, Baillie takes special care to develop a complex psychology for the title character.

264

Druskowitz, Helen Von. Drei Englisch Dichterinnen: Essays. Berlin: Oppenheim, 1885.

Contains an essay on Baillie, in German.

265

Evans, Bertrand. Gothic Drama from Walpole to Shelley. University of California Publications 18. Berkeley: U of California P, 1947.

In the eleventh chapter, calls for a revaluation of Baillie's plays. Argues that Baillie is quintessentially Gothic because she crowds most of her plays with dark and gloomy castle and convent settings, secret passageways, ruins, tolling bells, and remorseful and emotional protagonists. Asserts that in Orra, the title character's fear and eventual madness result from the combined effects of these Gothic elements.

266

Fletcher, Richard M. English Romantic Drama, 1795-1843. New York: Exposition, 1966.

Portrays Baillie on the fringe of the Romantic drama, a scene dominated William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, and Lord Byron. States that like Coleridge and Wordsworth, Baillie hopes to create an artistic drama well-suited to the contemporary stage.

267

Frank, Parson. "Joanna Baillie." Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art 23 (1851): 420-25.

Provides a general appreciation of Baillie's literary career, summarizing and providing brief laudatory comments on De Monfort, Count Basil, Orra, The Family Legend, and Fugitive Verses. Highlights Baillie's ability to create vivid characters, and notes the particular strength of De Monfort, Jane De Monfort, and Orra.

268

Franklin, Caroline. Byron's Heroines. Oxford: Clarendon, 1992.

In a short section of a chapter on "Heroic Heroines," traces Baillie's influence on Lord Byron's drama. States that Baillie and Lord Byron share ideas on feminine nurturing and that both emphasize sibling relationships. Considers De Monfort and Constantine Paleologus.

269

Fawcett, Millicent Garrett. Some Eminent Women of Our Times: Short Biographical Sketches. London and New York: Macmillan, 1889.

Highlights Baillie's relationships with Sir Walter Scott and Sarah Siddons. States that Baillie's realistic women characters mark her style as feminine. Discusses De Monfort and its stage failure.

270

Gamer, Michael. "National Supernaturalism: Joanna Baillie, Germany, and the Gothic Drama." Theatre Survey 38.2 (1997): 49-88.

Argues that Baillie attempts to combine spectacle and psychology, thus negotiating the boundary between public popularity and critical approval. Asserts that the creation of characters haunted by nothing "other than their own minds" allows Baillie to use Gothic tropes while directing audience attention away from spectacle and towards psychological perception of the supernatural. Further examines M. G. Lewis' Castle Spectre and August von Kotzebue's plays to demonstrate nineteenth-century critical bias against German conventions. Claims that in Ethwald, Baillie distances herself from such influences by "creating a series of dualisms . . . good versus evil, truth versus falsehood, Protestantism versus Catholicism, and Britain versus the Continent." Considers Ethwald, De Monfort, Rayner, and The Phantom in detail.

271

Genest, John, ed. Some Account of the English Stage from the Restoration in 1660 to 1830. 10 vols. Carrington: Bath, 1832. Rpt. Burt Franklin Research and Source Work Series 93. New York: Franklin, 1965.

In volume seven, summarizes De Monfort and praises its "exquisitely beautiful language." In volume eight, provides plot summaries for the plays in each volume of A Series of Plays and those in Miscellaneous Plays. Praises Baillie's "masterly" characterizations, including Ethwald, Osterloo of The Dream, and Valdemar of The Siege. Criticizes Baillie's lack of practical knowledge of the stage, and repeatedly censures her "disgusting" tendency to allow characters to exit a scene only to enter the next without allowance for the passage of time.

272

Gaull, Marilyn. English Romanticism: The Human Context. New York: Norton, 1988.

In a brief passage, surveys Baillie's career. Also suggests that Baillie helped reform the theatre by directing it toward moral didacticism.

273

Gilroy, Amanda. "From Here to Alterity: The Geography of Femininity in the Poetry of Joanna Baillie." A History of Scottish Women's Writing. Ed. Douglas Gifford and Dorothy McMillan. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1997. 143-57.

Drawing on Frederick Rowton's 1848 anthology of women's poetry (see Primary/Contemporary/Works in Collections, above and this section, below) and on contemporary reviews of Baillie's work, examines "The Legend of Lady Griseld Baillie," "Sir Maurice: A Ballad," and Ahalya Baee to show how Baillie "negotiates the boundaries of space allotted to femininity." Considering the locations and events of each poem, asserts that "Lady Griseld" and "Sir Maurice" circumscribe the feminine within the domestic sphere as well as under patriarchal power. Maintains that Ahalya Baee challenges the notion of separate gender spheres put forth by the earlier two poems.

274

Groves, David. "Beethoven and Scottish Poetry." Bibliotheck 15.2 (1988): 31-33.

Notes that Beethoven composed music for two of Baillie's lyrics for publication in George Thomson's A Select Collection of Original Scotch Airs.

275

Hamilton, Catherine J. Women Writers: Their Works and Ways. First Series. 1892. Essay Index Reprint Series. Freeport: Books for Libraries, 1971.

Offers a brief biographical essay with some critical evaluation. Claims Baillie's best attribute is her ability to depict the effects passions have on an individual's psyche. Discusses De Monfort, Basil, Ethwald, Constantine Paleologus, Orra, and Henriquez.

276

Hawkins, F. W. The Life of Edmund Kean. 2 vols. London: Tinsley, 1869. Rpt. New York: Blom, 1969.

Considers Kean's 1821 production of De Monfort and attributes its failure to the unsuitability of Baillie's plays for the stage. Notes Baillie's willingness to incorporate Kean's suggestions for revisions and her satisfaction with Kean's performance in the new version. Also highly praises Kean's interpretation of De Monfort.

277

Hazlitt, William. Lectures on the English Poets. London: Taylor and Hessey, 1818. Rpt. Lectures on the English Poets and The Spirit of the Age. Everyman's Library 459. London: Dent; New York: Dutton, 1910. 1-168.

Briefly criticizes Baillie's efforts to depict one passion per play as "heresies of dramatic art." Praises De Monfort for its "unity of interest," but heavily censures her comedies, especially The Election, for simplistic and heavy-handed moral didacticism.

278

Henderson, Andrea. "Passion and Fashion in Joanna Baillie's 'Introductory Discourse.'" PMLA 112 (1997): 198-213.

Argues that Baillie's emphasis on the passions arises from the "sympathy and sentimentality" of nineteenth-century business and consumer practices. Claims that Baillie's concern with physical appearance connects to a nineteenth-century focus on physiognomy. States that Baillie's artistic program "promotes a modern consumerist form of desire" which emphasizes both procurement and ownership of art objects.

279

*Howells, Coral Ann. Joanna Baillie and Her Circle, 1790-1850: An Introduction. [London]: Camden Historical Society, 1973.

280

Howitt, William. Homes and Haunts of the Most Eminent British Poets. 2 vols. London: Bentley, 1847. Rpt. Belles Lettres in English. New York and London: Johnson, 1968.

Provides a vivid description of Baillie's birthplace, Bothwell, Scotland, noting its geography and culture. Briefly considers Baillie as a dramatic genius whose plays are "imagined to be more suitable for the closet than the stage."

281

Inchbald, Elizabeth, ed. "Remarks [An Introduction to De Monfort]." The British Theatre, or, A Collection of Plays. Vol. 24. London: Longman, Hurst, Rees, and Orme, 1808. 3-6.

Asserts that De Monfort is a work of genius, but criticizes its lack of substantial reason for the title character's hatred for Rezenvelt. States that Baillie has created two excellent characters in Rezenvelt and Jane De Monfort.

282

Insch, A. G. "Joanna Baillie's De Monfort in Relation to Her Theory of Tragedy." Durham University Journal 23 (1961): 114-20.

Argues that Baillie's plays fail because the dramatist places depicting a passion and stating a moral message above developing character and plot. Maintains that this pattern results in a one-dimensional protagonist, De Monfort, while Rezenvelt appears more real because he need not be ruled by one passion alone. However, contends that De Monfort succeeds because Baillie invests the title character with pride as his tragic flaw.

283

Ireland, Joseph N. Records of the New York Stage from 1750 to 1860. 2 vols. New York: Morrell, 1866-67. Rpt. New York: Blom, 1966.

Includes cast lists for both the April 13, 1801 American premier of De Monfort and an 1809 revival.

284

"Joanna Baillie." Bentley's Miscellany 29 (1851): 453-57.

Provides an overview and general appreciation of Baillie's life and career. Lauds the "accuracy of her analysis of passion" and her ability to sustain a play based on a single emotion. Claims that Baillie's lack of theatrical success occurred because the plays were "not intended for the stage." Cites the flaws of Baillie's drama as her over-attention to detail and her use of Elizabethan language, but states that Baillie's genius rises above these imperfections.

285

Kucich, Greg. "Staging History: Teaching Romantic Intersections of Drama, History, and Gender." Approaches to Teaching British Women Poets of the Romantic Period. Ed. Stephen C. Behrendt and Harriet Kramer Linkin. Approaches to Teaching World Literature. New York: MLA, 1997. 88-96.

Shows how Baillie may be used in a course on Romanticism and gender. Places Baillie with other women writers—such as Maria Edgeworth, Catharine Macaulay, and Felicia Hemans—who attempt to create an "emotional interiority" distinct from masculine history. Shows that emotion can, for Baillie, manifest itself in communal expressions of feeling, as at the end of De Monfort.

286

Levin, Alexandra Lee. "The Collector of Britain's Songs." British Heritagehttp://www.thehistorynet.com/BritishHeritage/articles/12962_text.htm/ 10 August 1998.

Discusses George Thomson's efforts to collect British lyric poems, and notes Baillie's refusal to revise "The Maid of Llanwellyn" for one of his collections.

287

MacCunn, Florence. Sir Walter Scott's Friends. London: Blackwood, 1909; New York: Lane, 1910.

For annotation, see Secondary/Biography/Twentieth, above.

288

Malina, Marilyn. "Scots Poetic Tradition: Wooing and Marriage in Poems by Ebenezer and Joanna B. Picken." Selected Essays on Scottish Language and Literature: A Festschrift in Honor of Allan H. MacLaine. Ed. Steven R. McKenna. Lewiston: Mellen, 1992. 163-75.

States that Baillie's "Woo'd and Married and A'" influenced Joanna B. Picken's "An Auld Friend wi' a New Face." Argues that Picken more explicitly questions the institution of marriage than does Baillie.

289

Mathur, Om Prakash. The Closet Drama of the Romantic Revival. Salzburg Studies in English Literature. Poetic Drama and Poetic Theory 35. Salzburg: Institut für Englische Sprache und Literatur, 1978.

In a brief section on Baillie, contends that Baillie's compartmentalization of the passions, stereotypical plots, and weak characterizations result in dramatic failure. Suggests that the Miscellaneous Plays are her most successful works due to their variations in plot and character, and asserts that Baillie's strongest attributes are her depictions of crowd scenes and her poetic language. Considers The Election, De Monfort, Basil, Rayner, Constantine Paleologus, and The Family Legend.

290

McCue, Kirsteen. "Women and Song, 1750-1850." A History of Scottish Women's Writing. Ed. Douglas Gifford and Dorothy McMillan. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1997. 58-70.

Briefly considers Baillie as a Scottish songwriter, placing her among other writers such as Anne Grant, Elizabeth Hamilton, and Jean Adam. Asserts that songs allow socially refined women—like Baillie—"to grasp the physical immediacy" of traditional ballads. States that Baillie's "Hooly and Fairly" breaks with tradition by presenting a sarcastic and derisive view of marriage.

291

McKerrow, Mary. "Joanna Baillie and Mary Brunton: Women of the Manse." Living by the Pen: Early British Women Writers. Ed. Dale Spender. Athene Series. New York: Teachers College, 1992. 160-174.

For annotation, see Secondary/Biography/Twentieth, above.

292

Mellor, Anne K. "A Criticism of Their Own: Romantic Women Literary Critics." Questioning Romanticism. Ed. John Beer. Baltimore and London: Johns Hopkins UP, 1995. 29-48.

Asserts that Baillie, Anna Barbauld, Mary Wollstonecraft and other women writers upheld coherent aesthetic theories opposed to those advanced by their male contemporaries. Demonstrates that women espoused "the workings of a rational mind," a fluid self immersed in a social context, and reform through communal action. States that the Plays on the Passions show the growth of feelings within a social context. This growth creates a connection between characters and audience which culminates in the moral instruction of the latter.

293

—-. "Joanna Baillie and the Counter-Public Sphere." Studies in Romanticism 33 (1994): 559-67.

Drawing on Jürgen Habermas's concept of the "public sphere" along with Rita Felski's idea of the "counter-public sphere," maintains that Baillie uses "the theatre to re-stage and revise the social construction of gender." Argues that by emphasizing the counter-public sphere—the domestic and the personal realm—Baillie explores the relationship between honor and love. Asserts that this, a conflict of the domestic sphere, directly influences the public sphere. Further argues that Baillie characterizes the "masculine public sphere" as dominated by self-destructive egotism and pride while she portrays the feminine counter-public sphere with a basis in domestic action and nurturing affection.

294

Meynell, Alice. The Second Person Singular and Other Essays. London: Milford, 1922. Essay Index Reprint Series. Freeport: Books for Libraries, 1968.

In a short essay on Baillie, states that her tragedies are well-constructed and provide a strong sense of closure. Contends that Baillie's comedies on the passions provide better dramatic entertainment and display Baillie's sharp wit, as in the "exceeding sweetness" of The Tryal's heroines. Believes Baillie would have more readers if her comedies received more emphasis than her tragedies. Discusses De Monfort and The Tryal.

295

Millar, J. H. A Literary History of Scotland. New York: Scribners, 1903.

Praises Baillie's lyric power, and states that her best work is "The Chough and Crow" passage from Orra.

296

Mitford, Mary Russell. Recollections of a Literary Life; Or, Books, Places, and People. London: Bentley, 1851; New York: Harper, 1852. Rpt. Women of Letters. New York: AMS, 1975.

As did Wordsworth, praises Baillie as "the very pattern" of a distinguished woman and author. Lauds the strength of Baillie's plays, especially her female characters. Also admires Baillie's lyric abilities, and reprints several poems. For list, see Primary/Modern/Non-Drama/Selected Poems, above.

297

Morre, Isabel, ed. Talks in a Library with Laurence Hutton. New York and London: Kinckerbocker-Putnam, 1911.

Recounts the brief story of Hutton's 1885 visit to Hampstead to find Baillie's house and grave. States that Hutton questioned two local inhabitants for information: one believed Baillie was still living, and the other had never heard of her.

298

Nicoll, Allardyce. A History of Early Nineteenth-Century Drama, 1800-1850. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1930.

In a chapter entitled "The Legitimate Drama," asserts that although Baillie's plays suffer from lapses in coherent plot construction and from too heavy a reliance on Elizabethan diction, her consistent development of one central emotion makes her plays "landmarks . . . in English theatre." Argues that Baillie's plays show potential because her dramatic technique improves with maturity, but states that Elizabethan influences continually hold back her art. Briefly considers De Monfort, Ethwald (part one), Constantine Paleologus, The Family Legend, Orra, and The Dream.

299

—-. A History of English Drama, 1660-1900. 5 vols. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1955.

Reprints A History of Early Nineteenth-Century Drama, 1800-1850 and A History of Late Eighteenth-Century Drama, 1750-1800, above and below, as volumes four and three, respectively.

300

—-. A History of Late Eighteenth-Century Drama, 1750-1800. Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1927.

Briefly considers the first volume of A Series of Plays, citing Baillie's focus on passion over character, her "tendency . . . towards the romantically abstract," and her false diction as flaws fatal to her plays.

301

*Nicoll, W. Robertson. The Literary Associations of Hampstead: Bolton House, Windmill Hill, and Metley Cottage. [London]: [Bookman]: 1893.

302

Norton, M. "The Plays of Joanna Baillie." Review of English Studies os 23 (1947): 131-43.

Affirms that Baillie's most revolutionary technique is her consistent focus on only one humor per play. Believes that this innovation also becomes Baillie's greatest flaw because, "In seeking to reveal the passion, she loses sight of the man." States that the development of a single isolated emotion cannot sustain the interest of an audience full of many competing and conflicting emotions.

303

"Obituaries." Harper's New Monthly Magazine 2 (1851): 709.

Commends Baillie's moral and simple life, and praises her literary works, comparing her stark emotional portrayals to Greek drama. Asserts that Baillie and William Wordsworth share responsibility for "the redemption of our poetry from that florid or insipid sentimentalism" of the early part of the century.

304

Page, Judith W. Wordsworth and the Cultivation of Women. Berkeley: U of California P, 1994.

In a chapter on Wordsworth's poetic vocation, briefly considers Baillie, and argues that although the Introductory Discourse influences Wordsworth's Preface of 1800, the two writers differ on their perceptions of their audiences. Suggests that Baillie hopes to teach her audience while Wordsworth attempts to earn the respect of his audience. Also contends that Baillie desires to create sympathy between the characters in her work and her audience while Wordsworth hopes to gain approval from critics.

305

Pearson, Hesketh. Sir Walter Scott: His Life and Personality. New York: Harper, 1954. Rpt. London: Hamilton, 1987.

Emphasizes Baillie's friendship with Sir Walter Scott. Challenges Scott's positive appraisal of Baillie's work, asserting that Scott's preference for blank verse drama and his admiration of Baillie's moral message led to his overestimation of her work. Also discusses Scott's efforts in the production of The Family Legend.

306

Purinton, Marjean D. Romantic Ideology Unmasked: The Mentally Constructed Tyrannies in Dramas of William Wordsworth, Lord Byron, Percy Shelley, and Joanna Baillie. Newark: U of Delaware P, 1994.

In the chapter on Baillie, demonstrates that she critiques gender "not as a biological function but as a cultural practice." Citing Mary Wollstonecraft, Maria Edgeworth, Mary Hays, Hannah More, and Clara Reeves, shows an oppressor/oppressed relationship between genders to be a widespread concern of nineteenth-century women. Argues that the concerns of these women writers "appear as latent content" in De Monfort and Count Basil. Interprets the two plays as works which depict men attempting to control women who are struggling to exert their independent will.

Reviews:

  • Schatz, Sueann. Rocky Mountain Review 49 (1995): 203-05.

  • Woodall, N. J. Choice 32 (1995): 937.

307

*—-. "Revising Romanticism by Inscripting Women Playwrights". Romanticism On the Net 12 (November 1998): n. pag. Online. Internet. 005822ar.html

308

Ranger, Paul. "Terror and Pity reign in every Breast": Gothic Drama in the London Patent Theatres, 1750-1820. London: Society for Theatre Research, 1991.

Discusses William Capon's set design for the first production of De Monfort. Notes that Baillie's stage directions innovatively suggest hand held lanterns to help illuminate actors' faces more clearly. Surveys Edmund Kean's and John Philip Kemble's portrayals of De Monfort, and argues that Kean, though less dignified and technically adept than Kemble, brought more sustained energy to the role.

309

Reiman, Donald H. Introduction. The Family Legend and Metrical Legends of the Exalted Characters. By Joanna Baillie. Romantic Context: Poetry. Significant Minor Poetry, 1789-1830. New York and London: Garland, 1976. v-viii.

Provides a brief description of Baillie's life, and surveys nineteenth-century reactions to her work. Claims that Baillie's blank verse is among the best of the Romantic period because it is "simple and natural, supple and original." Argues that like William Wordsworth, Baillie believes "ordinary life" possesses the potential for both "heroism and tragedy." Believes that Baillie may have achieved more if her later works had not been influenced by Sir Walter Scott's suggestions for subject matter.

310

—-. Introduction. Miscellaneous Plays. By Joanna Baillie. Romantic Context: Poetry. Significant Minor Poetry, 1789-1830. New York and London: Garland, 1977. v-viii.

Reprints the introduction from The Family Legend and Metrical Legends of the Exalted Characters, above.

311

—-. Introduction. A Series of Plays. 3 vols. By Joanna Baillie. Romantic Context: Poetry. Significant Minor Poetry, 1789-1830. New York and London: Garland, 1977. i:v-viii.

Reprints the introduction from The Family Legend and Metrical Legends of the Exalted Characters, above.

312

Renwick, W. L. English Literature: 1789-1815. Oxford: Clarendon, 1963.

Dismisses Baillie as one who lacks creativity and attempts to write beyond her ability. Provides the often quoted criticism that "No real dramatist would deliberately sit down to write a whole series of Plays on the Passions."

313

Robertson, Fiona, ed. Introduction to Joanna Baillie's "Lines on the Death of Sir Walter Scott." Scott. Vol. 3 of Lives of the Great Romantics II: Keats, Coleridge, and Scott, By Their Contemporaries. London: Pickering and Chatto, 1997. 17-20.

Describes the friendship between Scott and Baillie, and states that the two writers viewed each other as literary equals and did not, contrary to some current criticism, see their relationship as that of a master and apprentice. Argues that in "Lines on the Death of Sir Walter Scott," Baillie portrays her friend as the admirable and distinguished lord of Abbotsford while she simultaneously portrays him as a man who easily mixes with and offers friendship to all classes of people.

314

Robinson, A. Mary F. "Joanna Baillie." The English Poets: Selections with Critical Introductions by Various Writers. 5 vols. Ed. Thomas Humphry Ward. London: Macmillan, 1880. 4:221-2.

Finds fault with Baillie's narrow dramatic didacticism, but praises her poetic simplicity and her Scottish ballads. For poems reprinted, see Primary/Modern/Non-Dramatic/Selections.

315

Ross, Marlon B. The Contours of Masculine Desire: Romanticism and the Rise of Women's Poetry. New York: Oxford UP, 1989.

Depicts Baillie as a playwright caught in the middle of several conflicts. Argues that Baillie's dramatic theory exists between eighteenth-century sentimentality and rationality. Asserts that, like Wordsworth, Baillie attempts to integrate emotion and thought. Suggests that Baillie examines the masculine world of public affairs and its relationship to internal feelings. Concludes that Baillie believes that the lack of interaction between these two points of view threatens the stability of society.

Reviews:

  • Mellor, Anne K. Studies in Romanticism 31 (1992): 103-05.

316

Rowton, Frederic. The Female Poets of Great Britain. London: Longman, Brown, Green, and Longmans; Philadelphia: Carey and Hart, 1849. 287-306.

Argues that Baillie is the foremost intellectual female poet of the age and that her writing possesses "vigour, clearness, and simplicity." Notes that Baillie precedes and heralds William Wordsworth, and asserts that she attempts to reform the theatre by leading it away from melodrama and towards poetry. For poems reprinted, see Primary/Contemporary/Works in Anthologies, above.

317

Rubik, Margarete. Early Women Dramatists, 1550-1800. English Dramatists. London: Macmillan; New York: St. Martin's, 1998.

Asserts that in De Monfort, Baillie follows melodramatic conventions too closely, and thus the play remains unconvincing. States that in contrast, Count Basil's "sound characterization" contributes to a more effective drama. Also claims that although The Tryal lacks originality, it surpasses other contemporary comedies because of its humor and witty dialog.

318

Scullion, Adrienne. "Some Women of the Nineteenth-century Scottish Theatre: Joanna Baillie, Frances Wright, and Helen MacGregor." A History of Scottish Women's Writing. Ed. Douglas Gifford and Dorothy McMillan. Edinburgh: Edinburgh UP, 1997. 158-78.

Defines Baillie's place in nineteenth-century Scottish theatre, and states that she helps initiate Scottish National Drama with The Family Legend. Claims that while Baillie manages The Family Legend's stage craft well, she produces a contrived plot and stereotypical characters. Briefly considers Witchcraft as a more complex and interesting drama. Also explores the gender dynamic in Baillie's work, placing her in alignment with Anne K. Mellor's idea of feminine Romanticism.

319

Simmons, James R., Jr. "'Small, Prim, and Quaker-like': Reinventing Joanna Baillie as Jane Eyre." Brontë Society Transactions 21.4 (1994): 149-51.

Argues that Charlotte Brontë's descriptions of Jane Eyre's appearance influenced John Francis Waller's posthumous appreciation of Joanna Baillie (see Waller, this section, below).

320

Sotheby, William. Tragedies. London: Murray, 1814.

A short introductory letter dedicates this volume to Baillie.

321

Tappan, Henry P. Illustrious Personages of the Nineteenth Century. New York: Stringer and Townsend, 1853.

For annotation, See Secondary/Biography/Nineteenth, above.

322

Tobin, Terrence. Plays by Scots, 1660-1800. Iowa City: U of Iowa P, 1974.

In a chapter on "Scots Abroad," asserts that Baillie's focus on a solitary emotion creates artificial and unsympathetic protagonists because she limits them to an "idée fixe." States that De Monfort most nearly fulfills Baillie's dramatic theory, but argues that the play fails because De Monfort never acts nobly, even though other characters describe him as such. Asserts that Jane De Monfort is the best conceived of Baillie's supporting characters because she is complex and virtuous but not without fault. Briefly considers Basil and The Tryal, criticizing them for their lack of complexity.

323

"The Tragedy Called De Montford [sic], and the Passion of Hatred, Illustrated by an Original Account." Signed "B." Monthly Mirror 9 (1800): 361-62.

Relates the story of an actual court case wherein a man confessed to murdering a former classmate due to a long-standing hatred of him. States that this case illustrates that De Monfort's plot is neither too contrived nor too unbelievable, as some critics had charged. See also Wynn, this section, below.

324

Veitch, John. The Feeling for Nature in Scottish Poetry. 2 vols. Edinburgh and London: Blackwood, 1887.

Briefly notes Baillie's contributions to Scottish literature, stating that the "simplicity in theme, treatment, and language" of later nineteenth-century literature emerges due to Baillie's influence.

325

Waller, John Francis. "Leaves from the Portfolio of a Manager, No. IV: Joanna Baillie." Dublin University Magazine 37 (1851): 529-36.

Provides a first-person account of friendship with Baillie. Describes the playwright as "small, prim, and Quaker-like" (see Simmons, this section, above). Discusses the stage failure of both Kemble's and Kean's productions of De Monfort, attributing their failures to the play's strained emotions. Favorably considers the Edinburgh production of The Family Legend, and asserts the play possesses "action, vigor, and poetical dialogue" which make the play theatrically viable. Argues that Constantine Paleologus remains Baillie's most stageable play because of its story and vivid characterization. Reprinted in Eclectic Magazine of Foreign Literature, Science, and Art 23 (1851): 128-35.

326

Watkins, Daniel P. "Class, Gender, and Social Motion in Joanna Baillie's De Monfort." Wordsworth Circle 23.2 (1992): 109-17.

Revises and expands "The Gait Disturb'd," below. Adds that in De Monfort, real and imagined knocking on doors represents the aristocracy's psychological anxiety about the rising middle class. Argues that the decadent party scenes function as the aristocracy's (futile) attempts to escape society's dissolving hierarchies.

327

—-. "'The Gait Disturb'd of Wealthy, Honour'd Men': Joanna Baillie's De Monfort." Nineteenth-Century Contexts 15 (1991): 143-51.

Argues that the class and gender conflicts of De Monfort highlight Baillie's political awareness. Claims that the personal conflict between De Monfort and Rezenvelt mirrors early nineteenth-century class conflicts. Concludes that De Monfort's psychological instability reflects the "rapidly-increasing social change" of the nineteenth century.

328

—-. A Materialist Critique of English Romantic Drama. Gainesville: UP of Florida, 1993.

In the chapter on Baillie (which further refines the previous two essays), argues for Baillie's primary importance because she dramatizes the "social and historical pressures" of her era. Drawing on Marxist theory, states that the main conflict in De Monfort is one of class, exemplified through the aristocratic De Monfort and his bourgeois rival, Rezenvelt. Also asserts that the second important struggle for power occurs between genders, with women subject to men regardless of class. Concludes that De Monfort is the embodiment of the aristocracy, caught between a deteriorating class structure and the collapse of distinct gender roles.

Reviews:

  • Cox, Jeffrey N. Criticism 36 (1994): 464-67.

  • Crochunis, Thomas C. Nineteenth Century Theatre 24 (1996): 42-55.

  • Jewitt, William. Studies in Romanticism 34 (1995): 309-15.

  • Moody, Jane. Review of English Studies ns 47 (1996): 600-01.

  • Purinton, Marjean D. Southern Humanities Review 30 (1996): 290-93.

329

White, Guy Wallace. "Correcting a Cursory Glance: Joanna Baillie's Literary Contribution." http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/guy.white/subpag22.htm/ 10 August 1998. [no longer available]

Surveys nineteenth-century appraisals of Baillie's work and questions why, after such positive comments, Baillie remains largely forgotten. Asserts that Baillie's ideas were "fervently religious, quasi-feminist, anti-canonical, didactic and controversial" and that these views contribute to her canonical exclusion. Also considers Carhart's biography of Baillie, claiming that social restrictions hindered Carhart from presenting a complete and accurate picture of her subject. For an annotation of the rest of White's website, see Secondary/Electronic, below.

330

Whyte, Walter. "Joanna Baillie (1762-1851)." The Poets and Poetry of the Nineteenth Century. 12 vols. Ed. Alfred H. Miles. London: Routledge, 1905. New York: AMS, 1967. 8: 1-16.

Introductory note provides biographical information, and argues that although Scott overrates Baillie's plays, they possess the merits of creativity, dignified verse, and graceful heroines. Asserts that Baillie will be remembered primarily for her lyrics and songs. Reprints nine poems; for list, see Miles, Primary/Modern/Non-Drama/Selected Poems, above.

331

*Wordsworth, Jonathan, ed. Ancestral Voices: Fifty Books from the Romantic Period. Revolution and Romanticism, 1789-1834. Oxford: Woodstock, 1991.

Reprints and revises the introduction to Joanna Baillie: A Series of Plays, below.

Reviews:

332

—-. Introduction. Joanna Baillie: Poems. Revolution and Romanticism, 1789-1834. Oxford and New York: Woodstock, 1994. n. pag.

Argues that, like the dramas which were to follow, Baillie's poems attempt to depict one prevailing passion or mood. Places Baillie within the Scottish poetic tradition. Notes her influence on William Wordsworth, and claims that Baillie anticipated —if not invented—the lyrical ballad form.

333

—-. "Joanna Baillie: Poems, 1790." The Bright Work Grows: Women Writers of the Romantic Age. Revolution and Romanticism, 1789-1834. Poole and Washington D. C.: Woodstock, 1997. 58-66.

Reprint of the above introduction with revisions. Offers specific comparisons between Baillie's and William Wordsworth's verse.

334

—-. Introduction. Joanna Baillie: A Series of Plays. Oxford and New York: Woodstock, 1990. n. pag.

Considers the success of A Series of Plays, and links Baillie's Introductory Discourse and De Monfort to William Wordsworth's Preface and early poetry. Briefly considers Count Basil, The Tryal, and De Monfort, asserting that the last best fulfills Baillie's theatre theory.

335

Worth, Christopher. "'A Very Nice Theatre at Edinr.': Sir Walter Scott and Control of the Theatre Royal." Theatre Research International 17 (1992): 86-95.

Examines the historical significance of Scotland's Theatre Royal in relation to Sir Walter Scott's efforts to create a national identity for Scotland. Discusses The Family Legend as an important early production in the theatre.

336

Wynn, Frances Williams. Diaries of a Lady of Quality, from 1797 to 1844. 2nd ed. Ed. A. Hayward. London: Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts, and Green, 1864.

Relates the story of long-lasting hatred and murder given in "The Tragedy Called De Montford [sic]," Monthly Mirror 9 (1800): 361-62, this section, above. Also provides editorial notes defending the authenticity of the story. A review of this book, Edinburgh Review 119 (1864): 305-39, also reprints the story.

337

Yudin, Mary F. "Joanna Baillie's Introductory Discourse as a Precursor to Wordsworth's Preface to Lyrical Ballads." Compar(a)ison 1 (1994): 101-11.

Argues that Baillie's Introductory Discourse and William Wordsworth's Preface are linked by a focus on both "middle and lower class subjects" and "quotidian events." Notes that both authors concern themselves with the depiction and description of authentic emotions. Argues that the Introductory Discourse raised public expectations which Baillie's subsequent plays failed to reach, thus contributing to her fall from popularity and eventual exclusion from the canon.

338

Zall, Paul M. "The Cool World of Samuel Taylor Coleridge: The Question of Joanna Baillie." Wordsworth Circle 13 (1982): 17-20.

Provides a brief biography of Baillie. Asserts that her plays are ridiculous, though De Monfort is "less ludicrous than most." Discusses the staging and revising of De Monfort, especially noting the revisions made by John Philip Kemble and Sarah Siddons. Argues that Baillie's plays failed because she knew little of contemporary theatre practice.

339

Ziegenrucker, Emil. Joanna Baillie's "Plays on the Passions". Hamburg-Barmbeck: Starck, 1909.

Provides a descriptive and critical study of Baillie's drama. Devotes a chapter to the works from A Series of Plays, as well as Romiero, The Alienated Manor, and Henriquez. Provides bibliographical and biographical essays together with a discussion of Baillie's views of comedy, tragedy, and dramaturgy.

C. Secondary Works/Dissertations

340

Note: Not all dissertations were available through inter-library loan. In cases where an abstract exists for a dissertation I could not obtain, I have written an annotation based on the abstract. These sources are marked with a †.

341

†Berliner, Donna Gaye. "The Female Romantic Imagination." Diss. U of Texas at Dallas, 1994. DAI 55 (1995): 368.

Considers Baillie, Felicia Hemans, and Letitia Landon as self-supporting women. Examines nineteenth-century opinions of Baillie's work, and asserts that Baillie's overt sentimentality challenges standard readings of the Romantic period.

342

*Carhart, Margaret Sprague. "The Life and Work of Joanna Baillie." Diss. Yale University, 1921. ADD L1923.

For an annotation of the book based on this dissertation, see Carhart, Secondary/Biography/Twentieth, above.

343

Gamer, Michael Crews. "Popular Stigmas and Appropriate Authors: High Romanticism's Hidden Gothic." Diss. U of Michigan, 1993. DAI 54 (1994): 2588.

In a chapter on Baillie, argues that Baillie utilizes gothic conventions while distancing herself from their lack of sophistication. States that Baillie "markets herself as a socially benign and culturally legitimate alternative" to the excess of gothic theatre. Asserts that Baillie avoids "supernatural spectacles" in an effort to reform drama. Also suggests that Baillie attempts to continue Shakespearean styles in a new context and explores Baillie's influence on Samuel Taylor Coleridge's revisions to Remorse. Considers Basil, De Monfort, Ethwald, Orra, and The Phantom.

344

Judson, Barbara Louise. "Passion and the Public Sphere: A Study of the Political Significance of Female Sexuality in British Romanticism." Diss. U of Virginia, 1995. DAI 57 (1996): 233.

Asserts that Baillie attempts to "rehabilitate" femininity by removing "women's autonomous sexuality" from public life as well as by emphasizing the "sanctity of maternity" in private life. States that De Monfort promulgates "Tory evangelical ideology" by espousing the virtue of reason and "passionlessness." Claims, however, that even as Baillie marks Jane De Monfort as chaste and forbidden, masculine desire for her simultaneously increases.

345

†Kutrieh, Marcia Geib. "Popular British Romantic Poets." Diss. Bowling Green State U, 1974. DAI 34 (1974): 2229a.

Considers Baillie among 17 other British women poets, and provides a biographical sketch of her. Defines Baillie as an important author because of her large reading public.

346

Lamb, Virginia Blackwell. "Joanna Baillie's Plays on the Passions Viewed in Relation to Her Dramatic Theories." Diss. Kent State U, 1973. DAI 34 (1974): 406a.

Contends that Baillie's effectiveness as a writer of moral tragedies emerges from her ability to depict ordinary people under extraordinary levels of passion. States that Baillie rejects satirical, sentimental, and circumstantial comedies because these do not provide moral edification. Shows that Baillie developed "characteristic comedy" to instruct readers and to develop sympathetic curiosity in them, just as in tragedy. Places Baillie's dramatic theory in context with other writers such as Samuel Taylor Coleridge and William Hazlitt. Considers Basil, The Beacon, De Monfort, The Dream, Ethwald, Henriquez, Orra, and Romiero.

347

*Lambertson, Chester Lee. "The Letters of Joanna Baillie, (1801-1832)." Diss. Harvard U, 1956. ADD (1956): X1956.

348

Mears, Richard McMath. "Serious Verse Drama in England: 1812-1850. Diss. U of North Carolina-Chapel Hill, 1953. DA (1954).

In a short section on Baillie, examines Orra in relation to her dramatic theories. States that Orra suffers because other passions—such as pride—play important roles in the play. Also believes that the presence of a Gothic villain frustrates the entirely internal development of fear. Claims that Baillie's plays anticipate later drama in several ways, including her portrayals of "Byronic" heroes. Asserts that Baillie's movement from "Gothic drama to religious drama to prose tragedy" parallels larger dramatic trends in the early nineteenth century.

349

Noble, Aloma. "Joanna Baillie as Dramatic Artist." Diss. U of Iowa, 1983. DAI 44 (1984): 1974.

Provides a survey of Baillie's life, the theatrical conventions of the Romantic age, and Baillie's dramatic theory, and concludes that Baillie's greatest strength lies in her characterization. Argues that De Monfort illustrates "the nature of humanity" and the "Biblical principle" of the struggle against powers of evil. Contends that by focussing on the human mind in De Monfort, Baillie creates a tragedy without political, class, or economic concerns. Asserts that Baillie's comedy, The Tryal, anticipates the realism of twentieth-century comedy.

350

Patten, Janice Elma. "Dark Imagination: Poetic Painting in Romantic Drama." Diss. U of California, Santa Cruz, 1992. DAI 53 (1992): 3225.

In a chapter on Baillie, argues that Baillie's concept of dramaturgy rests on a foundation of character as it is perceived in nineteenth-century medicine and psychology. States that Baillie's plays manifest internal realities and conflicts. Asserts that Baillie explores the "perceptions of the mind" as related to actual "emotional experience." Considers Constantine Paleologus, De Monfort, and The Family Legend.

351

†Pipkin, John George. "'The Line Invisible': Intertextuality and the Men and Women Poets of British Romanticism (Charlotte Smith, Joanna Baillie, Mary Tighe, William Wordsworth, Samuel Taylor Coleridge, John Keats)." Diss. Rice U, 1997. DAI 58 (1997): 887.

Examines the interconnections between the Introductory Discourse and Wordsworth's Preface, arguing that Baillie's "aesthetic theory . . . anticipates Wordsworth's valorization of powerful emotions, natural language, and rustic themes." Asserts that Baillie's notion of sympathetic curiosity contributed to Wordsworth's desire to write the Preface.

352

Purinton, Marjean Delene. "Ideology Unmasked and Fictions Revealed: The Mentally Constructed Tyrannies of English Romantic Drama." Diss. Texas A&M U, 1991. DAI 53 (1992): 162.

For an annotation of the book based on this dissertation, see Purinton, Secondary/Critical, above.

353

†Sim, S. "'Memory's Wizard Pencil': The Perpetuation of an Ethos in Early Nineteenth-Century Representation of Renaissance Drama." Diss. U of Stirling, 1991. Index to Theses Accepted for Higher Degrees by the Universities of Great Britain and Ireland (and the Council for National Academic Awards) 42 (1993): 42-5208.

Explores connections between A Series of Plays and Renaissance drama, and asserts that Baillie attempts to "reconstitute and sanitize issues and themes" of the earlier period. Argues, however, that Baillie's literary allusions undermine her moral aims.

354

Yudin, Mary F. "Women Dramatists of the Nineteenth Century and the Domestic Drama: Joanna Baillie, Charlotte Birch-Pfeiffer, and Gertrudis Gomez de Avellaneda." Diss. Pennsylvania State U, 1995. DAI 57 (1996): 164.

Claims that Baillie reshapes nineteenth-century theatre by attempting "to unite the lyricism of the past with the morality of the present." Asserts that The Beacon subverts melodramatic convention by redefining the heroine and by creating a sympathetic villain. States that, contrary to her other plays, Constantine Paleologus represents men as reasonable and women as sentimental. Shows that Orra explores the horror of the supernatural and that it locates terror within the domestic sphere. Also asserts that Orra's madness allows her to subvert masculine power structures.

D. Electronic Resources

355

Black, Pamela J. http://juliet.stfx.ca/~pblack/ 10 August 1998. Contains a picture of Baillie.

356

Gamer, Michael. http://dept.english.upenn.edu/~mgamer/Romantic/baillie.html/ 10 August 1998.

Contains only a link to photo of the Baillie memorial.

357

Joanna Baillie, De Monfort. http://www.engl.virginia.edu/~enec981/Group/amanda.monfort.html/ 10 August 1998.

Prints De Monfort Act 2.1, Act 4.2, and the Epilogue as they appear in Jeffrey N. Cox's Seven Gothic Dramas. Also reprints passages from Cox's introduction and Paul Ranger's "Terror and Pity reign in every Breast" . . .; for annotations of these two sources, see Secondary/Critical, above.

358

Kopp, Richard. Welsh Folksongs. http://acronet.net/~robokopp/welsh/maidofll.html 10 August 1998. [no longer available]

Prints "The Maid of Llanwellyn" and includes a link to a melody which can be downloaded.

359

Petersohn, Frank. Folksongs of Various Countries. http://ingeb.org/songs/maidofll.html. 10 August 1998.

Prints "The Maid of Llanwellyn" with a link to a melody for it.

360

van Leeuwen, Steven H. The New Bartelby: A National Digital Library. http://www.bartleby.com/101/510.html . 10 August 1998.

Prints "The Outlaw's Song" [The chough and crow to roost are gone"] from Arthur Quiller-Couch's The Oxford Book of English Verse (see Primary/Modern/Non-Drama/Selected Poems, above).

361

White, Guy Wallace. Joanna Baillie. http://www3.ns.sympatico.ca/guy.white/joanna.htm 10 August 1998. [no longer available]

Devoted to Baillie, offers an essay by White on Baillie (see Secondary/Critical, above), links to electronic texts and other websites which refer to Baillie, and a partial bibliography. Reprints "Lines to Agnes Baillie on Her Birthday" and "Thunder" (see Primary/Modern/Non-Drama/Selected Poems, above, for URLs). Contains a picture of Baillie's monument in Bothwell, Scotland.


Auteur : Ken A. Bugajski
Titre : Joanna Baillie: An Annotated Bibliography
Revue : Romanticism on the Net, Numéro 12, novembre 1998
URI : http://id.erudit.org/iderudit/005817ar
DOI : 10.7202/005817ar

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