Certain conflicts between offenders over their illicit activities end in the murder of one of the protagonists. These homicides are refered to as settling of accounts. This article examines why and under what circumstances offenders choose to solve their differences by a settling of accounts. Three categories of conflicts between offenders were identified. The 444 cases of settling of accounts ending with 531 victims that occured in Quebec from 1970 to 1986 were analyzed within those categories. The findings indicate that these homicides occured in cases where the stakes were very high. This study also shows why certain criminal activities and certain illicit markets give rise to more settling of accounts than others.
This article concerns the commercial prostitution that was operating in the Montreal region from 1981 to 1985. An analysis of the police archives and the classified advertisements made it possible to reconstitute the decisions a criminal who wants to get into this market has to make with regard to the opportunities available and the specific requirements of his milieu (social and police-related). One of the major conclusions of this article is the transient structural nature of ventures in commercial prostitution. The results could be evidence of the temporary nature and instability of the criminal opportunities themselves.
Co-offending has not been a major area of research for students of crime careers. This paper, however, offers a preliminary analysis of an extensive set of intelligence files gathered by law enforcement agencies on biker groups over a 14 year period (1974-1988). Data has been collected on size, location, network status, life span and degree of crime involvement of 62 criminally involved adult biker groups having operated in Eastern Canada (Quebec) during that period. Findings show a substantial drop in participating groups. Further, remaining groups have not become larger as shown by the equally substantial drop in the overall core underworld biker population. Alternative explanatory accounts for this overall drop are considered.
The study of criminal areas has been a longstanding tradition in sociology and criminology. It had its hour of glory during the publication of the works of Shaw and McKay of the University of Chicago. In this article — which is an account of the studies on the concentration of criminals in urban areas — we show that, since the XIXth century, large metropolises have relatively stable sectors where the social control is weak and opportunities to commit crimes are numerous. Networks of juvenile delinquents and adult criminals develop in these areas, fostering the transmission of criminal solutions. The article contains a description of the process that leads to the emergence of a crime zone. It ends with a critique on ecological studies and by an appeal for the study of conflicts within these criminal networks.
The history of the police in Canada is a field that has been little explored. This is all the more so in the case of the police corps of Quebec, the only valid monograph on the subject being one on the Montreal police. This article gives a general outline of the administrative history of the provincial police of Quebec, the “Sûreté du Québec”, since its creation in 1870 by the provincial government. The idea of creating a police force under State control was not new, going back to the first «modern» police established in 1838 in Quebec city and Montreal during a time of rebellion, by an Order in Council of governor Durham. An unsuccessful attempt was made to establish one during the 1850s. It was in 1870 that the «provincial police» were set up in Quebec City, the capital, mainly to have a force to intervene in riots and strikes. Municipalities requiring them could also obtain their services. This police corps was reduced after 1878 to become a mere guard of the Parliament which also served the Department of the Attorney General. After that, great changes were made with the integration of other police and government services : the Bureau of Provincial Detectives of Montreal in 1922, the liquor and highway police in 1934 and 1936, which in 1938 become branches of the Provincial Police. In 1938, the Duplessis government undertook to extend the provincial police by opening up stations throughout the province. After 1960, the Lesage government completed the merging of the various branches, sought to eliminate political influence in the hiring of police and opened the first training school for policemen. The Provincial Police became the Sûreté du Québec in 1968, when an administrative restructuring was started, inspired by the methods used in private enterprise, which gave its form to today's Sûreté.