The global open education movement is striving toward openness as a feature of academic policy and practice, but evidence shows that these ambitions are far from mainstream, and levels of awareness in institutions is often disappointingly low. Those advocating for open education are seeking to widen engagement, but how targeted and persuasive are their messages? The aim of this research is to explore the voices often unheard, those of the teachers and professional service staff with whom we are engaging. This research presents a series of interviews with those involved in open education at De Montfort University in the UK, with the aim of gaining a better perspective of what openness means to them. The interviews were analysed through an interpretive lens allowing each individual to create their own story and reflect their own personal view of openness. The results of this study are that in this university, openness is represented by five elements – staff pedagogy and practice, benefits to learners, accessibility and access to content, institutional structures, and values and culture. This work shows the importance of adopting critical approaches to gain a deeper understanding of the philosophical and pedagogic stances within institutions. By giving a voice to all those involved we will be able to develop appropriate and more persuasive arguments to widen our sphere of influence as a community of open educators.
- open educational resources,
- staff perceptions,
- institutional culture
- Alivernini, F., & Manganelli, S. (2011). Is there a relationship between openness in classroom discussion and students' knowledge in civic and citizenship education? Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 15, 3441-3445. doi: 10.1016/j.sbspro.2011.04.315
- Alraimi, K. M., Zo, H., & Ciganek, A. P. (2015). Understanding the MOOCs continuance: The role of openness and reputation. Computers & Education, 80, 28-38. doi: 10.1016/j.compedu.2014.08.006
- Anderson, M. S. (2007). Collective openness and other recommendations for the promotion of research integrity. Science and Engineering Ethics, 13(4), 387-394. doi: 10.1007/s11948-007-9047-0
- Atenas, J., Havemann, L., & Hammonds, W. (2015, November). Open data as open educational resources: Case studies of emerging practice (Blog post). Retrieved from http://education.okfn.org/open-data-as-open-educational-resources-case-studies-of-emerging-practice/
- Bakker, A. B., Vergel, A. I. S., & Kuntze, J. (2015). Student engagement and performance: A weekly diary study on the role of openness. Motivation and Emotion, 39(1), 49-62. doi: 10.1007/s11031-014-9422-5
- Barth, R. S. (1969). Open education-assumptions about learning. Educational Philosophy and Theory, 1(2), 29-39. doi: 10.1111/j.1469-5812.1969.tb00348.x
- Beetham, H., Falconer, I., McGill, L., & Littlejohn, A. (2012). Open practices: briefing paper. Jisc. Retrieved from https://oersynth.pbworks.com/w/page/51668352/OpenPracticesBriefing
- Cox, G., & Trotter, H. (2016). Institutional culture and OER policy: How structure, culture, and agency mediate OER policy potential in South African universities. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(5). doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v17i5.2523
- Creative Commons. (2016). Education -OER (Blog post). Retrieved from https://creativecommons.org/about/program-areas/education-oer/
- Dalsgaard, C., & Thestrup, K. (2015). Dimensions of openness: Beyond the course as an open format in online education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(6). doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v16i6.2146
- Farrow, R. (2016). Constellations of openness. In M. Deimann & M. Peters, (Eds.), The philosophy and theory of open education. New York: Peter Lang Publishing.
- Freire, P. (1998). Pedagogy of freedom: Ethics, democracy, and civic courage. Rowman & Littlefield.
- Hurt, L. (2012). Student perceptions of open educational resources. (Unpublished masters dissertation). De Montfort University. Retrieved from http://www.biologycourses.co.uk/biology-news/student-perceptions-of-oers
- Jisc. (2015). Open education project archive (Blog post). Retrieved from https://www.jisc.ac.uk/rd/projects/open-education
- Katz, L. G. (1972). Research on open education: Problems and issues. Clearinghouse on Early Childhood Education, University of Illinois. Retrieved from https://eric.ed.gov/?id=ED068202
- Klestinec, C. (2004). A history of anatomy theaters in sixteenth-century Padua. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, 59(3), 375-412. doi: 10.1093/jhmas/jrh089
- Lane, A. (2009). The impact of openness on bridging educational digital divides. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(5). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/637/1396
- MacKinnon, T., Pasfield-Neofitou, S., Manns, H., & Grant, S. (2016). A meta-analysis of open educational communities of practice and sustainability in higher educational policy. Alsic: Apprentissage des Langues et Systèmes d'Information et de Communication, 19. Retrieved from http://alsic.revues.org/2908
- McCormack, C. (2000). From interview transcript to interpretive story: Part 1—Viewing the transcript through multiple lenses. Field Methods, 12(4), 282-297. doi: 10.1177/1525822X0001200402
- McCrae, R.R. (1987). Creativity, divergent thinking, and openness to experience. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 52(6), 1258.
- McGill, L. (2013). Overcoming barriers and finding enablers (Blog post). Retrieved from https://openeducationalresources.pbworks.com/w/page/25168957/Overcoming%20barriers%20and%20finding%20enablers
- McGill, L., & Gray, T. (2015). Open media classes at Coventry University. Jisc Final Evaluation Report 2015. Retrieved from http://comc.loumcgill.co.uk
- Oliver, M. (2015). From openness to permeability: reframing open education in terms of positive liberty in the enactment of academic practices. Learning, Media and Technology, 40(3), 365-384. doi: 10.1080/17439884.2015.1029940
- Peters, M.A. (2010). Three forms of the knowledge economy: Learning, creativity and openness. British Journal of Educational Studies, 58(1), 67-88. doi: 10.1080/00071000903516452
- Peters, M.A., & Roberts, P. (2015). Virtues of openness: Education, science, and scholarship in the digital age. Routledge, New York, USA.
- Reed, P. (2012). Awareness, attitudes and participation of teaching staff towards the open content movement in one university. Research in Learning Technology, 20. Retrieved from http://www.researchinlearningtechnology.net/index.php/rlt/article/view/18520
- Resnick, L.B. (1972). Open education: Some tasks for technology. Educational Technology, 12(1), 70-76.
- Rolfe, V. (2012). Open educational resources: staff attitudes and awareness. Research in Learning Technology, 20. Retrieved from http://www.researchinlearningtechnology.net/index.php/rlt/article/view/14395
- Rolfe, V. (2015, November). Open education: sustainability versus vulnerability. In OpenEd2015: Annual Conference, Vancouver, Canada.
- Rolfe, V. (2016). Web Strategies for the Curation and Discovery of Open Educational Resources. Open Praxis, 8(4). Retrieved from https://openpraxis.org/index.php/OpenPraxis/article/view/305
- Spilovoy, T. M., & Seaman J. (2015). Opening public institutions: OER in North Dakota and the nation. Babson Survey Research Group. Retrieved from http://www.onlinelearningsurvey.com/reports/2015openingthepublicsnd.pdf
- Traub, R.E., Weiss, J., Fisher, C., & Musella, D. (1972). Closure on openness: Describing and quantifying open education. Interchange, 3(2-3), 69-84. doi: 10.1007/BF02137636
- Veletsianos, G., & Kimmons, R. (2012). Assumptions and challenges of open scholarship. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 13(4), 166-189. Retrieved from doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v13i4.1313
- Watters, A. (2014). From open to justice (Blog post). Retrieved from http://hackeducation.com/2014/11/16/from-open-to-justice
- Weller, M. (2010, November). Big and little OER. In OpenED2010: Seventh Annual Open Education Conference, Barcelona, Spain.
- Weller, M. (2014). Battle for open: How openness won and why it doesn't feel like victory. London: Ubiquity Press. doi: 10.5334/bam
- Wiley, D. (2006, February). Organisation for economic co-operation and development. Paper for Expert Meeting on Open Educational Resources, OECD-CERI, Malmö, Sweden. Retrieved from http://www.oecd.org/dataoecd/19/26/36224377.pdf
- Wiley, D., & Hilton J., III. (2009). Openness, dynamic specialization, and the disaggregated future of higher education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(5). doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v10i5.768.
- Wiley, D. (2014). The access compromise and the 5th R: Iterating toward openness (Blog post). Retrieved from http://opencontent.org/blog/archives/3221