The Open Education movement has made efforts to systematise experiences and to evaluate the adoption of Open Educational Resources (OER). However, OER adoption is not part of the prevailing paradigm in higher education, both at the global level and in Latin America. This paper describes results of a study that analysed the social representations regarding the development, use, and reuse of OER by university teachers in their pedagogical practices. We conducted a study of 12 cases from Latin American universities using data analysis based on Grounded Theory. The results show that the use and reuse of OER lacks of public and institutional policies. The main agents are teachers organised in teams that support OER adoption. The reasons that encourage the creation of OER are mainly intrinsic, such as the pleasure derived from contributing and sharing, as well as external and related to professional development needs from the reflection on one’s own educational practice. Educators consider it essential to evaluate the resources created so that they can be reused in continuous improvement processes. Commercial use and misappropriation of the works are two of the main tensions identified. The community factor of teaching guides most behaviours in OER adoption in educational institutions and is presented as an inherent part of the development and transformation of the curriculum.
- Open Educational Resources,
- University Teachers,
- Higher Education,
- Latin America
Download the article in PDF to read it.
- Abeywardena, I., & Westermann, W. (2017). Latin America and Caribbean regional consultation on open educational resources OER for inclusive and equitable quality education: From commitment to action. Sao Paulo, Brazil: Commonwealth of Learning. Retrieved from http://rcoer.col.org/uploads/2/2/8/4/22841180/lac_rcoer_report_final.pdf
- Allen, I. E., & Seaman, J. (2014). Opening the curriculum: Open Educational resources in US higher education. Babson Survey Research Group.
- Anderson, L. (2011). DELILA - Embedding digital and information literacy OERs into the PG Cert. Journal of Information Literacy, 5(1). doi: 10.11645/5.1.1611
- Annand, D. (2015). Developing a sustainable financial model in higher education for open educational resources. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(5). doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v16i5.2133
- Annand, D., & Jensen, T. (2017). Incentivizing the production and use of open educational resources in higher education institutions. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/3009
- Arinto, P., Hodgkinson-Williams, C., & Trotter, H. (2017). OER and OEP in the global south: Implications and recommendations for social inclusion. In Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South (pp. 577-592). Cape Town & Ottawa: African Minds, International Development Research Centre & Research on Open Educational Resources. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1094869
- Atenas, J., Havemann, L., & Priego, E. (2014). Opening teaching landscapes: The importance of quality assurance in the delivery of open educational resources. Open Praxis, 6(1), 29-43. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.6.1.81
- Atenas, J., Havemann, L., & Priego, E. (2015). Open data as open educational resources: Towards transversal skills and global citizenship. Open Praxis, 7(4), 377-389. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.7.4.233
- Belikov, O., & Bodily, R. (2016). Incentives and barriers to OER adoption: A qualitative analysis of faculty perceptions. Open Praxis, 8(3), 235-246. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.8.3.308
- Bossu, C., & Fountain, W. (2015). Capacity-building in open education: An Australian approach. Open Praxis, 7(2), 123-132. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.7.2.197
- Butcher, N., Kanwar, A., & Uvalić-Trumbić, S. (2011). A basic guide to open educational resources (OER). Vancouver; Paris: Commonwealth of Learning; UNESCO. Charmaz, K. (2006). Constructing grounded theory. London; Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.
- Charmaz, K., & Mitchell, R. G. (2001). Grounded theory in ethnography. In P. Atkinson, A. Coffey, S. Delamont, J. Lofland, & L. Lofland, Handbook of ethnography (pp. 160-174). United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd. doi: 10.4135/9781848608337.n11
- Clements, K. I., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2012). User-oriented quality for OER: Understanding teachers' views on re-use, quality, and trust: User-oriented quality for OER. Journal of Computer Assisted Learning, 28(1), 4-14. doi: 10.1111/j.1365-2729.2011.00450.x
- Cobo, C. (2013). Exploration of open educational resources in non-English speaking communities. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(2), 106-128. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v14i2.1493
- Conole, G. (2013). Designing for Learning in an Open World. New York: Springer-Verlag. Retrieved from https://www.springer.com/gb/book/9781441985163
- Cox, G., & Trotter, H. (2017). Factors shaping lecturers' adoption of OER at three South African universities. In adoption and impact of OER in the global south (pp. 287-347). Cape Town & Ottawa: African Minds, International Development Research Centre & Research on Open Educational Resources. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1094852
- Cox, G., & Trotter, H. (2016). Institutional culture and OER policy: How structure, culture, and agency mediate OER policy potential in South African universities. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 17(5), 147-164. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v17i5.2523
- Cronin, C. (2018). Openness and praxis: A situated study of academic staff meaning-making and decision-making with respect to openness and use of open educational practices in higher education (Doctoral disstertation, NUI Galway, Ireland). Retrieved from https://aran.library.nuigalway.ie/handle/10379/7276
- D'Antoni, S. (2008). Open educational resources the way forward, deliberations of an international community of interest. Retrieved from https://unesdoc.unesco.org/ark:/48223/pf0000157987
- de Langen, F. H. T. (2013). Strategies for Sustainable Business Models for Open Educational Resources. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(2), 53-66. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v14i2.1533
- Falconer, I., Littlejohn, A., McGill, L., & Beetham, H. (2016). Motives and tensions in the release of open educational resources: The UKOER program. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(4). doi: 10.14742/ajet.2258
- Glaser, B. G., & Strauss, A. L. (1967). The discovery of grounded theory: Strategies for qualitative research. New Brunswick: Aldine.
- Glennie, J., Harley, K., Butcher, N., & van Wyk, T. (2012). Open Educational resources and change in higher education: Reflections from practice. Commonwealth of Learning (COL). Retrieved from http://oasis.col.org/handle/11599/80
- Hanley, L. F., & Bonilla, D. (2016). Atolls, Islands, and Archipelagos: The California OER council and the new landscape for open education in California. Open Praxis, 8(2), 131-142. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.8.2.284
- Harley, D., Lawrence, S., Acord, S. K., & Dixson, J. (2009). Affordable and open textbooks: An exploratory study of faculty attitudes. California Journal of Politics and Policy, 2(1), 1-28. doi: 10.5070/P2D60T
- Hassall, C., & Lewis, D. I. (2017). Institutional and technological barriers to the use of open educational resources (OERs) in physiology and medical education. Advances in Physiology Education, 41(1), 77-81. doi: 10.1152/advan.00171.2016
- Hernández, A. T. (2014). Public expenditure in education in Latin America. Recommendations to serve the purposes of the Paris Open Educational Resources Declaration. Open Praxis, 6(2), 103-113. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.6.2.119
- Hodgkinson-Williams, C., & Arinto, P. B. (Eds.). (2017). Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South. Cape Town: African Minds Publishers.
- Hylén, J. (2006). Open educational resources: Opportunities and challenges. Proceedings of Open Education, 49-63.
- Inamorato, A., Cobo, C., & Costa, C. (2012). Open educational resources: Cases from Latin America and Europe in higher education (SSRN Scholarly Paper No. ID 2193109). Rochester, NY: Social Science Research Network. Retrieved from https://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2193109
- Inamorato Dos Santos, A., Nascimbeni, F., Bacsich, P., Atenas, J., Aceto, S., Burgos, D., & Punie, Y. (2017). Policy approaches to open education - case studies from 28 EU member states (OpenEdu Policies) (EUR - Scientific and Technical Research Reports). Publications Office of the European Union. 10.2760/283135
- Jhangiani, R. S., Pitt, R., Hendricks, C., Key, J., & Lalonde, C. (2016). Exploring faculty use of open educational resources at British Columbia post-secondary institutions. BCcampus Research Report. Victoria, BC: BCcampus.
- Jung, E., Bauer, C., & Heaps, A. (2017). Higher Education faculty perceptions of open textbook adoption. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 18(4), 123-141. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v18i4.3120
- Kaatrakoski, H., Littlejohn, A., & Hood, N. (2017). Learning challenges in higher education: an analysis of contradictions within Open Educational Practice. Higher Education, 74(4), 599-615. doi: 10.1007/s10734-016-0067-z
- Kanwar, A., Kodhandaraman, B., & Umar, A. (2010). Toward sustainable open education resources: A perspective from the Global South. American Journal of Distance Education, 24(2), 65-80. doi: 10.1080/08923641003696588
- Lesko, I. (2013). The use and production of OER & OCW in teaching in South African higher education institutions (Case Study). Open Praxis, 5(2), 103-121. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.5.2.52
- McAndrew, P., Farrow, R., Elliott-Cirigottis, G., & Law, P. (2012). Learning the lessons of openness. Journal of Interactive Media in Education, 2012(2). doi: 10.5334/2012-10
- McGreal, R., Anderson, T., & Conrad, D. (2015). Open educational resources in Canada 2015. International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 16(5), 161-175. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v16i5.2404
- McKerlich, R. C., Ives, C., & McGreal, R. (2013). Measuring use and creation of open educational resources in higher education. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 14(4). Retrieved from http://www.irrodl.org/index.php/irrodl/article/view/1573
- McGreal, R., Kinuthia, W., & Marshall, S. (Ed.) (2013). Open educational resources: Innovation, research and practice. Vancouver: Commonwealth of Learning and Athabasca University.
- Miles, M. B., & Huberman, A. M. (1999). Qualitative data analysis. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
- Mishra, S. (2017). Open educational resources: Removing barriers from within. Distance Education, 38(3), 369-380. doi: 10.1080/01587919.2017.1369350
- Mitros, P., & Sun, F. (2014). Creating educational resources at scale. In 2014 IEEE 14th International Conference on Advanced Learning Technologies (pp. 16-18). doi: 10.1109/ICALT.2014.15
- Moscovici, S. (1979). El psicoanálisis, su imagen y su público. [Psicoanalysis, its image and public.] Buenos Aires: Huemul.
- Moscovici, S (2006). Notes towards a description of Social Representations. European Journal of Social Psychology, 18(3), 211-250. doi: 10.1002/ejsp.2420180303
- Mtebe, J. S., & Raisamo, R. (2014). Investigating perceived barriers to the use of open educational resources in higher education in Tanzania. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 15(2). doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v15i2.1803
- Mulder, F. (2013). The LOGIC of National Policies and Strategies for Open Educational Resources. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(2), 96-105. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v14i2.1536
- Nkuyubwatsi, B. (2017). Willingness to engage in open educational practices among academics in Rwandan public higher education and responsive actions. Journal of Learning for Development - JL4D, 4(3). Retrieved from http://www.jl4d.org/index.php/ejl4d/article/view/223
- Petrides, L., Nguyen, L., Kargliani, A., & Jimes, C. (2008). Open educational resources: Inquiring into author reuse behaviors. In P. Dillenbourg & M. Specht (Eds.), Times of convergence. Technologies across learning contexts (Vol. 5192, pp. 344-353). Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer Berlin Heidelberg. 10.1007/978-3-540-87605-2_39
- Pirkkalainen, H., Jokinen, J. P. P., & Pawlowski, J. M. (2014). Understanding social OER environments #x2014: A quantitative study on factors influencing the motivation to share and collaborate. IEEE Transactions on Learning Technologies, 7(4), 388-400. doi: 10.1109/TLT.2014.2323970
- Reed, P. (2012). Awareness, attitudes and participation of teaching staff towards the open content movement in one university. Research in Learning Technology, 20. 10.3402/rlt.v20i0.18520
- Rodés Paragarino, V., Pelerino Francolino, F., Gewerc Barujel, Adriana, A., & Llamas Nistal, M. (2016). A characterization of users of digital educational resources repositories the case of the Latin American Community of Learning Objects #x2014; LACLO. In 2016 XI Latin American Conference on Learning Objects and Technology (LACLO; pp. 1-8). doi: 10.1109/LACLO.2016.7751793
- Rolfe, V. (2012). Open Educational Resources: Staff Attitudes and Awareness. Research in Learning Technology, 20(1). Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ973804&lang=es&site=ehost-live
- Secker, J., & Madjarevic, N. (2012). Sharing information literacy resources as open educational resources: lessons from DELILA. SCONUL Focus, 55. 14-17. Retrieved from https://www.sconul.ac.uk/sites/default/files/documents/5.pdf
- Shigeta, K., Koizumi, M., Sakai, H., Tsuji, Y., Inaba, R., & Hiraoka, N. (2017). A survey of the awareness, offering, and adoption of OERs and MOOCs in Japan. Open Praxis, 9(2), 195-206. doi: 10.5944/openpraxis.9.2.568
- Stacey, P. (2013). Government support for open educational resources: Policy, funding, and strategies. International Review of Research in Open and Distance Learning, 14(2), 67-80. doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v14i2.1537
- Stagg, A. (2014). La adopción de los recursos educativos abiertos: un continuo de práctica abierta. [OER adoption: a continuum for practice] RUSC. Universities and Knowledge Society Journal, 11(3), 161-176. doi: 10.7238/rusc.v11i3.2102
- Strauss, A. L., & Corbin, J. M. (1990). Basics of qualitative research: Grounded theory procedures and techniques. Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications.
- Thakrar, J., Wolfenden, F., & Zinn, D. (2009). Harnessing open educational resources to the challenges of teacher education in Sub-Saharan Africa. The International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning, 10(4). doi: 10.19173/irrodl.v10i4.705
- Toledo, A. (2017). Open access and OER in Latin America: A survey of the policy landscape in Chile, Colombia and Uruguay. In Adoption and impact of OER in the Global South (pp. 121-141). Cape Town & Ottawa: African Minds, International Development Research Centre & Research on Open Educational Resources. doi: 10.5281/zenodo.1094840
- Umar, A., Kodhandarama, B., & Kanwar, A. (2013). Can open educational resources thrive in closed educational systems? Some reflections on OER in developing countries. In Commonwealth of Learning, Athabasca University (pp. 193-206). Retrieved from https://oerknowledgecloud.org/sites/oerknowledgecloud.org/files/pub_PS_OER-IRP_web.pdf#page=219
- Woodward, K. M. (2017). Building a path to college success: advocacy, discovery and OER adoption in emerging educational models. Journal of Library & Information Services in Distance Learning, 11(1-2), 206-212. doi: 10.1080/1533290X.2016.1232053
- Zhang, M., & Li, Y. (2017). Teaching experience on faculty members' perceptions about the attributes of open educational resources (OER). International Journal of Emerging Technologies (IJET), 12(4), 191-199. doi: 10.3991/ijet.v12i04.6638