Higher Education the world over is recognized as a driver of development in the knowledge based economy. It is believed that Higher Education benefits the economy through the formation of human capital and building a knowledge base that contributes to solving problems in society. However, voices of frustration about graduates being unable to relate theory to practice in different contexts raises questions about the quality of teaching and learning in Higher Education Institutions (HEI). Some reports have shown that graduates seem to leave HEI’ s disengaged, ill equipped, and unable to apply acquired university knowledge to real world problems. In addition, even though the mission of the university is inclusive of engagement among others, community engagement priority seems to be emphasized only on the part of faculty members and less so on students. This in part is a result of a curriculum that mainly promotes classroom based learning and the ivory tower mentality of HEI, which places the community in the periphery of knowledge and data production. This conceptual paper argues that in order for HEI’s to produce quality graduates, who are innovative and active citizens, a transformative teaching and learning scholarship that moves beyond “classroom-based theory” is necessary, more especially for students in applied fields of study such as community development. Borrowing from Nyerere’s educational philosophy, this paper posits that Community Based Participatory Research (CBPR), with its collaborative inquiry, social action and service learning, may provide a basis for engaged scholarship of teaching and learning that promotes engagement for higher education students in applied fields of study. Thus, by exploring the concepts of engaged scholarship and CBPR and the nuances that exist between them, this paper seeks to underscore the importance of CBPR and how it can contribute to engaged scholarship for students.
- African Institute for Capacity Development (AICAD). (2011). In Proceedings of the Symposium on Development of Policy for Implementation of Universities’ Outreach Activities in Tanzania (p. 92). Institute of Continuing Education Sokoine University of Agriculture.
- Almeida, P.D. (2010). Globalization and collective action. In K. Leicht & J.C. Jenkins (Eds.), Handbook of politics: State and society in global perspective (pp. 305-326). Springer
- Boyer, E.L. (1990). Scholarship reconsidered: Priorities of the professoriate. Jossey-Bass. http://www.hadinur.com/paper/BoyerScholarshipReconsidered.pdf
- Boyer, E. (1996). The scholarship of engagement. Journal of Public Service and Outreach, 1(1), 11-20. https://eric.ed.gov/?id=EJ1097206
- Centre for Higher Education Transformation (CHET). (2003). Terms of engagement: Renewing the role of the university as an urban institution. Policy Change Report.
- Cloete, N., Bailey, T., Pillay, P., Bunting, I., & Maassen, P. (2011). Universities and economic development in Africa: pact, academic core and coordination. CHET.
- Deale, C.S. (2017). Learning through engagement: Undergraduate students engaging in community based-participatory research (CBPR) in hospitality and tourism education. Journal of Teaching in Travel & Tourism,17(1), 55-61. https://doi.org/10.1080/15313220.2016.1270180
- East Carolina University. (2016). VSLC outcomes. Volunteer and Service Learning Center. http://www.ecu.edu/VSLC/about_us-learning
- Fals-Borda, O. (1991). Some basic ingredients. In O. Fals-Borda & M. Anisur Rahman (Eds.), Action and knowledge: Breaking the monopoly with participatory action research (pp.3-12). Apex Press.
- Fanghanel, J. (2013). Going public with pedagogical inquiries: SoTL as a methodology for faculty professional development. Teaching & Learning Inquiry: The ISSOTL Journal, 1(1), 59-70. http://dx.doi.org/10.20343/teachlearninqu.1.1.59
- Fendler, L. (2006). Others and the problem of community. Curriculum Inquiry, 36(3), 303-326. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4124737
- Ferreira, P.M., & Gendron, F. (2011). Community-based participatory research with traditional and indigenous communities of the Americas: Historical context and future directions. International Journal of Critical Pedagogy, 3(3), 153-168. https://libjournal.uncg.edu/index.php/ijcp/article/viewFile/254/119
- Fontaine, S. (2006). Integrating community based participatory research into the curriculum. Journal of Higher Education Outreach and Engagement, 11(2), 45-56. https://openjournals.libs.uga.edu/jheoe/article/view/564/564
- Freire, P. (1970). Pedagogy of the oppressed. Herder & Herder.
- Fry, H., Ketteridge, S. & Marshall, S. (2009). A Handbook for Teaching and Learning in Higher Education. Routledge
- Gelmon, S.B., Holland, S., Seifer, S., Shinnamon, A., & Conners, K. (1998). Community-university partnerships for mutual learning. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 5, 97-107. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.3239521.0005.110
- Gelmon, S.B., Jordan, C., & Seifer, S.D. (2013). Community-engaged scholarship in the academy: An action agenda. Change: The Magazine of Higher Learning, 45(4), 58-66. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00091383.2013.806202
- Gibson, C.M. (2006). New times demand new scholarship: Research universities and civic engagement: A leadership agenda. Campus Compact and Tufts University.
- Green, L.W., George, A., & Daniel, M. (1995). Study of participatory research in health promotion. Royal Society of Canada
- Hammond, J.D., Hicks, M., Kalman, R., & Miller, J. (2005). PAR for the course: A congruent pedagogical approach for a PAR methods class. Michigan Journal of Community Service Learning, 12(1), 52-66. http://hdl.handle.net/2027/spo.3239521.0012.105
- Holland, D., Powell, D.E., Eng, E., & Drew, G. (2010). Models of engaged scholarship: An interdisciplinary discussion. Collaborative Anthropologies, 3(1), 1-36. http://dx.doi.org/10.1353/cla.2010.0011
- Ibanga, F.D. (2016). Julius Nyerere’s philosophy of education: Implication for Nigeria’s educational system reforms. Africology: The journal of pan African studies, 9(3), 109-125. https://philarchive.org/archive/IBAJNP
- Kellogg Health Scholars. (2016). History. http://www.kelloghealthscholars.org/about/vision.ph
- Madan, C.R., & Teitge, B.D. (2013). The benefits of undergraduate research: The student’s perspective. The Mentor: An Academic Advising Journal, 15, 1-3. http://dx.doi.org/10.26209/MJ1561274
- Major, T. & Mulvihill, T.M. (2009). Julius Nyerere (1922-1999), an African philosopher, re-envisions teacher education to escape colonialism. New Proposals: Journal of Marxism and Interdisciplinary Inquiry, 3(1), 15-22. https://ojs.library.ubc.ca/index/php.newproposals/article/view/200
- Minkler, M. (2004). Ethical challenges for the outside researcher in community-based participatory research. Health Education & Behavior, 31(6), 684-697. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1090198104269566
- Mukhungulu, M.J., Kimathi, V.A., & A, K’Odhiambo, K. (2017). African philosophy of education: Analysis of the neglected ideals of Nyerere’s ujamaa. Journal of Education and Practice, 8(15),178-186. https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/EJ1143819.pdf
- Neufeldt, R. C., & Janzen, R. (2021). Learning from and with community-based and participatory action research: Constraints and adaptations in a youth-peacebuilding initiative in Haiti. Action Research, 19(1), 91–109. https://doi.org/10.1177/14767503209162
- Nkulu K. L. (2005). Serving the common good : A postcolonial African perspective on higher education. New York.
- Nyerere, J.K. (1967). The Arusha Declaration and TANU’s policy on socialism and self-reliance. Dar Eslaam Publicity Section, TANU.
- Nyerere, J. (1982). Education for self-reliance. In A. Babs Fafunwa & J. U. Aisiku (Eds.), Education in Africa: A Comparative Study (pp. 235-253). George & Unwin.
- Ontario Ministry of Education. (2013). Students as researchers: Collaborative inquiry action-research toolkit. http://www.edugains.ca/resourcesSV
- Peterson, T. (2009). Engaged scholarship: Reflections and research on the pedagogy of social change. Teaching in Higher Education, 14(5), 541-552. http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/13562510903186741
- Preece, J. (2013). Towards an Africanisation of community engagement and service. Learning Perspectives in Education, 31(2),114-122. https://www.ajol.info/index.php/pie/article/view/97082
- Sequeira, A.H. (2012). Introduction to concepts of teaching and learning. Social Sciences Education E-Journal. http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.2150166
- Strand, K., Marullo, S., Cutforth, N., Stoecker, R., & Donohue, P. (2003). Community-based research and higher education. Jossey-Bass.
- Wallerstein, N., Duran, B., Oetzel, J., & Minkler, M. (2017). Community-based participatory research for health. Jossey Bass.
- Weinberg, A.E., Trott, C.D., & McMeeking, L.B. (2018). Who produces knowledge? Transforming undergraduate students’ views of science through participatory action research. Sci Ed, 102(4), 1 -21. https://doi.org/10.1002/sce.21453
- Wilson, E., Kenny, A., & Dickson-Swift, V. (2018). Ethical challenges in community-based participatory research: A scoping review. Qualitative Health Research, 28(2), 189–199. http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1049732317690721
- Zhang, E., Yigletu, S., Lieberman, H., Kosinski, K., & Mukthineni, R. (2020). Perspectives on initiating community based participatory research partnerships. Journal of Community Engagement and Scholarship, 12(2), 55-62. http://dx.doi.org/10/54656/QLFD7028