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For public choice and agency theorists, the poor performance of public enterprises is caused by inefficient policies and by managers who do not care about public interests. These managers and administrative officials are supposed to maximize their organizations' utility rather than their own personal ones. To draw attention of stakeholders on what they do and how they do it, we have adopted a research methodology using documentary sources and secondary data to investigate, through the why, who, when, where and how of structural adjustment through privatization in Africa.
About a decade ago, I founded the Asta-Ja Framework which identifies Eight Ja—the Nepali letter “Ja,”—meaning Jal (water), Jamin (land), Jungle (forest), Jadibuti (medicinal and aromatic plants), Janashakti (manpower), Janawar (animlas), Jarajuri (crop plants), and Jalabayu (climate), and proposes their sustainable conservation, development, and utilization for fast-paced socio-economic transformation of Nepal. It is a scientific, holistic, systematic, self-reliance, and multidisciplinary grassroots-based framework for conservation, development and utilization of Asta-Ja resources. For its practical application, I proposed eight principles: 1) community awareness, 2) policy decision making, 3) community capacity-building, 4) interrelationships and linkages, 5) comprehensive assessment, 6) sustainable technologies and practices, 7) institutions, trade and governance, and 8) sustainable community development and socio-economic transformation. The first decade of its implementation in Nepal characterized with a vigorous community outreach, strong membership drive, sound policy advocacy, heavy engagement of high-level government officials and dignitaries, community capacity-building, disaster relief works, and cutting-edge research and development. Future direction for its effective implementation include: 1) institutional strengthening, 2) coordination with governmental agencies and other stakeholders in planning and management of Asta-Ja resources, 3) expedited research and development on Asta-Ja resources, 5) formation of Asta-Ja Consortium, 6) development of a comprehensive Asta-Ja Data Portal, and 7) the establishment of Asta-Ja Think Tank.
Telecommunication prices are vastly different across regions in China. This paper aims to identify the determinants that affect regional pricing behavior of China telecom operators. Using regional telecommunication data of 31 provinces and autonomous regions in China (excluding Hong Kong and Macao) during 2002–2011, we identified several factors which affect the regional price differences. The findings provide insights on the working of China telecommunication industry and have implications for firms' marketing strategies and government policies.