Les etudes empiriques indiquant que la strategie d'entreprise n 'explique pas toute la variation des pratiques de gestion des ressources humaines, les auteurs proposent une reformulation du cadre theorique afin de reduire cet inexplique.
Strategic human resource management involves managing human resources so that they best contribute to the realization of an organization's business strategy. Authors who have written on this subject — and their number is increasing — suggest that a directrelationship exists between the business strategy of an organization and its HR management Systems. The few empirical studies on the subject reveal a different picture since the idea of a directrelationship between the business strategy and HR management Systems was found to be weak and even questionable. Perhaps no directrelationship can be found because there is simply no such relationship.
Perhaps it exists, but the measures are inadequate. Perhaps the relationship is only indirect. Or perhaps HR Systems are related more closely to other phenomena. The last two explanations are examined in this article. In particular, the authors argue that (1) the relationship between HR Systems and business strategy is indirectand (2) other factors, in particular the socialfactor,may have a strong influence. It is believed that these two hypotheses help in providing richer explanations of reality than that which has been traditionally proposed. The hypotheses also help in opening up new areas of research.
More specifically, the presence of a «social» policy may explain why some HR activities are implemented because the «social strategy» helps align HR management with the social environment of the organization. Changes in the area of employee rights provide a vivid example. According to many authors, a major change is presently under way regarding employee rights. More and more, employees expect greater respect for their individual rights: free expression, job security, fairness and equity, privacy, access to information, participation in decisions that affect them, and so on. The employer has at least three choices for meeting this wave of demands: (1) refusal, (2) tolerance, and (3) acceptation. As soon as an employer recognizes a particular employee right, he is compelled to recognize another one which is embedded in it. This fundamental right is a «right to justice» because it aims at ensuring respect for other individual rights. This is why a number of employers have already put in place a variety of justice Systems, also called: «Internal Dispute Resolution Systems».