Individual and family characteristics associated with the persistence of disruptive behavior disorders in children. This study identifies characteristics, measured at study entry, that differentiate between children engaging in persisting or in decreasing trajectories of behavior disorder and verifies the moderating effect of gender. The sample consists of 268 elementary school-age children (28% of girls; M=9.8 years, s.d.=1.79) receiving services for behavioral problems at school. According to the latent growth class analysis (six years), 12.3% of children (24% of females) belonged to the persisting trajectory and 32.5% (30% of female) belonged to the descending trajectory. Although children in both trajectories had similar vulnerabilities at study entry, multivariate regression analyzes identified some differentiating characteristics: a temperament characterized by a high sensory threshold increases the probability of belonging to the persistent trajectory among girls; the presence of an anxiety disorder and the absence of a depressive disorder in the parents was associated with membership in the persistent trajectory. These findings support targeting difficulties of parents to prevent the persistence of behavioral problems.
Keywords: troubles du comportement, trajectoires de développement, caractéristiques individuelles et familiales, enfance, effets de genre, behavior disorders, trajectory, individual and familial factors, childhood, gender
In a context of inclusive school, this paper aims to demonstrate good practices to implement, to promote autistic students' academic success in regular classes during the primary to secondary school transition. The information gathered is based on an action research conducted during two years in three schools from two different Quebec administrative regions. Stakeholders (n=25), autistic students (n=11), and their parents (n=10), have helped to outline the salient aspects of the practices implemented to promote an inclusive education for all. Our conclusions show that it is imperative to provide professional development on understanding the scheme of thinking of autistic students, to regular classroom stakeholders. It is also important that decision-makers give time to set up collaboration between primary and secondary level resources, as well as those of community and rehabilitation networks.
Keywords: inclusion scolaire, autisme, transition primaire-secondaire, pratiques d'intervention, formation, coopération, inclusive education, autism, primary to secondary school transition, intervention practices, professional development, cooperation
Several studies have shown that stress among workers and students is increasingly common, to the extent of becoming a public health preoccupation. This might be partially explained by increasing demands on the cognitive system. Exposure to natural settings has been shown to help decrease anxiety levels, but also to restore cognitive resources. Hence, this article aims at presenting how cognitive processes can benefit from nature exposure and at highlighting the main studies supporting nature integration among work and scholar environments.
Keywords: stress, attention, restauration attentionnelle, nature, aménagement d'espace de travail, stress, attention, attention restoration, nature, workspace planning
Parents of childrens and adolescents with ASD face multiples challenges, including in their dyadic relationship. This qualitative analysis of 42 individual interviews conduct among parents of children and adolescents with autism highlight and explain four particulars challenges : iniquities among contributions of each parent to family life, differences between mother's and father's perceptions and reactions about autism, difficulties having time together as a couple, and emotional and psychological difficulties. The ecosystemic model allow a better understanding of these challenges and situate them in the familial and social context.
Keywords: couple, défis conjugaux, autisme, adolescent, parent, couple, dyadic challenges, autism, adolescent, parenting
The number of students with disabilities has increased by more than 900% in Québec universities Such an increase generates undue pressures on both the academic services available to that clientele and the personnel responsible for internships placement and supervision. In the past decade, a number of studies have attempted to make up for the lack of scientific knowledge on in-class support (measures to support the trainees.), and only a small number of studies worldwide, have focused specifically on accommodation in the context of internships. This situation prompted the current researchers to conduct an exploratory research in partnership with university supervisors, field supervisors and internship coordinators. The research concentrated on three professional programs in order to highlight the specific challenges and issues supervisors must confront while providing support to students with disabilities. The study will eventually focus on testing the identified measures so as to assess their impact and help in developing required modifications.
Keywords: étudiants en situation de handicap, formation pratique, mesures d'accommodement et d'accompagnement, recherche-action collaborative, students with disability, clinical placement, accommodation and support measures, collaborative-action research
Through Quebec universities, the population of students with emerging disabilities is higher than the population of students with physical disabilities. Within our university, the social work's departement has the largest proportion of students with emerging disabilities. The varied challenges faced by these students with mental or neurodevelopmental disorders during their theoretical training tend to increase during internships, leading to extensions, dropouts or failures. The aim of this article is to describe the structure that has been developped to support these social work students.
Keywords: Étudiants en situation de handicap, Études post-secondaires, Travail social, Troubles mentaux, Troubles neurodéveloppementaux, Students with Disabilities, Postsecondary Education, Social Work, Mental Disorders, Neurodevelopmental disorders
Over the past few decades, a multitude of tests and indicators have been developed to attempt to detect invalid neuropsychological test findings. However, the proliferation and popularity of these measures have contributed to the impression that it is possible to use them to identify malingering. In the following, a conceptual framework is proposed to attempt to better understand the underlying issues and aid with the interpretation of response invalidity. It is proposed that this involves two distinct steps. The first involves detecting non-valid cognitive results using psychometric methods, and more specifically performance validity tests (PVTs). The second requires judgment of the non-credibility of the overall clinical picture, integrating and assessing inconsistencies among various sources. Only in the presence of compelling inconsistencies might it be possible to make an informed decision about the exaggeration of cognitive symptoms.
Keywords: expertise, validité des réponses, simulation, independent medical examination, response validity, malingering
After various kinds of motor vehicle accidents, suicide is the second most important cause of mortality in Québec adolescents aged 15 to 19. An increasing number of studies indicate that, as well as raising alarm signals, sleep problems in young people may be contributing to the problem of youth suicide. This article presents a profile of suicide among Québec adolescents, quantifies young people's sleep requirements, and examines two of the most common sleep problems in this population: that is, insomnia and delayed sleep phase syndrome. It then describes the causes and consequences of these sleep difficulties, and explores the links between the latter and the problem of suicide. Finally, the article makes several recommendations for young people, their parents, professionals and institutions.
Keywords: sommeil, suicide, adolescence, sleep, suicide, adolescence