This article aims to reformulate existing understandings of bullying behaviours in secondary schools, by applying a critical feminist lens to patterns of verbal and psychological harassment among students. Through this understanding, educators may better understand the causes of (hetero)sexist, transphobic, and homophobic behaviours. With a more complex awareness of these power relations, teachers, teacher educators, and educational leadership scholars will be offered critical approaches to help them transform the oppressive cultures of schools.
Une reformulation féministe des notions d’intimidation et de harcèlement : transformer les écoles grâce à la pédagogie critique
Le présent article vise à reformuler la compréhension des actes d’intimidation dans les écoles secondaires en analysant sous un angle féministe critique les tendances au harcèlement psychologique et verbal chez les élèves. Grâce à cette nouvelle démarche, les éducateurs devraient mieux comprendre les éléments qui sont à l’origine des comportements sexistes, transphobes et homophobes. En étant davantage sensibilisés aux rapports de force qui existent, les enseignants, les éducateurs et les spécialistes en éducation disposeront de démarches critiques qui les aideront à transformer les tendances oppressives des écoles.
Veuillez télécharger l’article en PDF pour le lire.
- Bagley, C., Bolitho, F., & Bertrand, L. (1997). Sexual assault in school, mental health and suicidal behaviours in adolescent women in Canada. Adolescence, 32(126), 361-366.
- Bochenek, M., & Brown, A. W. (2001). Hatred in the hallways: Violence and discrimination against lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender students in U.S. schools: Human Rights Watch.
- Bond, L., Carlin, J. B., Thomas, L., Rubin, K., & Patton, G. (2001). Does bullying cause emotional problems? A prospective study of young teenagers. BMJ: British Medical Journal, 323(7311), 480-484.
- Bufkin, J. L. (1999). Bias crime as gendered behavior. Social Justice, 26(1), 155-176.
- Butler, J. (1990). Gender Trouble. New York: Routledge Falmer.
- California Safe Schools Coalition. (2004). Consequences of harassment based on actual or perceived sexual orientation and gender non-conformity and steps for making schools safer. Davis: University of California.
- Connell, R. W. (1995). Masculinities. Sydney: Allen and Unwin.
- Corbett, K., Gentry, C. A., & Pearson, W. J. (1993). Sexual harassment in high school. Youth & Society, 25(1), 93-103.
- Dinham, S., Cairney, T., Craigie, D., & Wilson, S. (1995). School climate and leadership: Research into three secondary schools. Journal of Educational Administration, 33(4), 36-59.
- Duncan, N. (1999). Sexual bullying: Gender conflict and pupil culture in secondary schools. London: Routledge.
- Duncan, N. (2004). It’s important to be nice, but it’s nicer to be important: Girls, popularity and sexual competition. Sex Education, 4(2), 137-152.
- Eder, D. (1997). Sexual aggression within the school culture. In B. Bank & P. M. Hall (Eds.), Gender, equity, and schooling (pp. 93-112). London: Garland Publishing.
- Freire, P. (1970/1993). Pedagogy of the oppressed. New York: Continuum.
- GLSEN. (2001). The national school climate survey: Lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth and their experiences in schools. New York, NY: The Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network.
- Hoover, J. H., & Juul, K. (1993). Bullying in Europe and the United States. Journal of Emotional and Behavioral Problems, 2(1), 25-29.
- Irving, B. A., & Parker-Jenkins, M. (1995). Tackling truancy: An examination of persistent non-attendance amongst disaffected school pupils and positive support strategies. Cambridge Journal of Education, 25(2), 225-235.
- Kincheloe, J. (2005). Critical pedagogy. New York: Peter Lang.
- Kosciw, J., & Diaz, E. (2006). The 2005 national school climate survey: The experiences of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender youth in our nation’s schools. New York: Gay, Lesbian, and Straight Education Network.
- Kumashiro, K. (2002). Troubling education: Queer activism and antioppressive pedagogy. New York: Routledge Falmer.
- Land, D. (2003). Teasing apart secondary students’ conceptualizations of peer teasing, bullying and sexual harassment School Psychology International, 24(2), 147-165.
- Larkin, J. (1994). Walking through walls: The sexual harassment of high school girls. Gender and Education, 6(3), 263-280.
- Lee, V., Croninger, R. G., Linn, E., & Chen, Z. (1996). The culture of sexual harassment in secondary schools. American Educational Research Journal, 33(2), 383-417.
- Louis Harris & Associates. (1993). Hostile hallways: The AAUW survey on sexual harassment in America’s schools. Washington, DC: American Association of University Women.
- Martino, W. (1995). ‘Cool boys’, ‘party animals’, ‘squids’ and ‘poofters’: Interrogating the dynamics and politics of adolescent masculinities in school. British Journal of Sociology of Education, 22(2), 239-263.
- Martino, W., & Berrill, D. (2003). Boys, schooling and masculinities: Interrogating the ‘Right’ way to educate boys. Educational Review, 55(2), 99-117.
- Martino, W., & Pallotta-Chiarolli, M. (2003). So what’s a boy? Addressing issues of masculinity and schooling. Buckingham: Open University Press.
- Meyer, E. (2007a) Gendered harassment in secondary schools: Understanding teachers’ perceptions of and responses to the problem. Unpublished doctoral dissertation. McGill University, Montreal, QC.
- Meyer, E. (2007b, April 9-13) Bullying and harassment in secondary schools: A critical feminist analysis of the gaps, overlaps and implications from a decade of research. Paper presented at the Annual meeting of the American Educational Research Association, Chicago, IL.
- Meyer, E. (2007, in press). Gendered harassment in high school: Understanding teachers’ (non) interventions. Gender and Education.
- National Mental Health Association. (2002). “What does gay mean?” Teen survey executive summary. Alexandria, VA: National Mental Health Association.
- O’Conor, A. (1995). Who gets called queer in school? Lesbian, gay, and bisexual teenagers, homophobia, and high school. In G. Unks (Ed.), The gay teen: Educational practice and theory for lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents (pp. 95-104). New York: Routledge.
- Olweus, D. (1993). Bullying at school: What we know and what we can do. Oxford: Blackwell.
- Reis, B. (1999). They don’t even know me: Understanding anti-gay harassment and violence in schools. Seattle: Safe Schools Coalition of Washington.
- Reis, B., & Saewyc, E. (1999). 83,000 Youth: Selected findings of eight population-based studies. Seattle: Safe Schools Coaltion of Washington.
- Renold, E. (2002). Presumed innocence – (Hetero)sexual, heterosexist and homophobic harassment among primary school girls and boys Childhood – A global journal of child research, 9(4), 415-434.
- Renold, E. (2003). ‘If you don’t kiss me you’re dumped’: Boys, boyfriends and heterosexualised masculinities in the primary school. Educational Review, 55(2), 179-194.
- Rich, A. (1978/1993). Compulsory heterosexuality and lesbian existence. In H. Abelove, D. Halperin & M. A. Barale (Eds.), The lesbian and gay studies reader (pp. 227-254). New York: Routledge.
- Riehl, C. J. (2000). The principal’s role in creating inclusive schools for diverse students: A review of normative, empirical, and critical literature on the practice of educational edministration. Review of Educational Research, 70(1), 55-81.
- Rigby, K., & Slee, P. (1999). Suicidal ideation among adolescent school children, involvement in bully-victim problems, and perceived social support. Suicide and Life-Threatening Behavior, 29(2), 119-130.
- Robinson, K. H. (2005). Reinforcing hegemonic masculinities through sexual harassment: issues of identity, power and popularity in secondary schools. Gender and Education, 17(1), 19-37.
- Rofes, E. (1995). Making our schools safe for sissies. In G. Unks (Ed.), The gay teen: Educational practice and theory for lesbian, gay, and bisexual adolescents (pp. 79-84). New York: Routledge.
- Ryan, J. (2003). Educational administrators’ perceptions of racism in diverse school contexts. Race Ethnicity and Education, 6(2), 145-164.
- Shariff, S. (2003). A system on trial: Educational, ethical, and legally defensible approaches to handling bullying. Unpublished Doctoral dissertation, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, BC.
- Sharp, S. (1995). How much does bullying hurt? The effects of bullying on the personal wellbeing and educational progress of secondary aged students. Educational & Child Psychology, 12(2), 81-88.
- Slee, P. (1995). Bullying: Health concerns of Australian secondary school students. International Journal of Adolescence & Youth, 5(4), 215-224.
- Smith, G. W., & Smith, D., Ed. (1998). The ideology of “fag”: The school experience of gay students. Sociological Quarterly, 39(2), 309-335.
- Soutter, A., & McKenzie, A. (2000). The use and effects of anti-bullying and anti-harassment policies in Australian schools. School Psychology International, 21(1), 96-105.
- Stein, N. (1992). Bitter lessons for all: Sexual harassment in schools. In J. T. Sears (Ed.), Sexuality and the curriculum: The politics and practices of sexuality education (Critical issues in curriculum) (pp. 10-123). New York: Teachers College Press.
- Stein, N. (1995). Sexual harassment in school: The public performance of gendered violence. Harvard Educational Review, 65(2), 145-162.
- Stein, N. (2002). Bullying as sexual harassment in elementary schools. In The Jossey-Bass reader on gender in education (pp. 409-429). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.
- Stoudt, B. G. (2006). “You’re either in or you’re out”: School violence, peer discipline, and the (re)production of hegemonic masculinity. Men And Masculinities, 8(3), 273-287.
- Walton, G. (2004). Bullying and homophobia in Canadian schools: The politics of policies, programs, and educational leadership. Journal of Gay and Lesbian Issues in Education, 1(4), 23-36.
- Whitley, B. E., Jr. (2001). Gender-role variables and attitudes toward homosexuality. Sex Roles, 45(11/12), 691-721.
- Williams, T., Connolly, J., Pepler, D., & Craig, W. (2005). Peer victimization, social support, and psychosocial adjustment of sexual minority adolescents. Journal of Youth and Adolescence, 34(5), 471-482.
- Wood, J. (1987). Groping towards sexism: Boys’ sex talk. In M. Arnot & G. Weiner (Eds.), Gender under scrutiny: New inquiries in education (pp. 187-230). London: Hutchinson Education.