This paper provides an historical and contemporary interpretation of the developmental influences that have led to the Ontario Ministry of Education’s recent focus on Aboriginal educational policy in Ontario, Canada. It offers an interpretive and critical perspective on the rhetorical constructions, assumptions, and value-orientations implicit in two seminal documents. This discussion will assist Aboriginal Advisory Groups and communities, as well as policy-makers and practitioners, to think clearly about implementation strategies in the broader context of Aboriginal socio-educational development.
Cet article offre une interprétation historique et contemporaine des facteurs ayant influencé le développement et contribué au récent intérêt du Ministère de l’Éducation de l’Ontario au Canada pour une politique éducationnelle autochtone. Il apporte une perspective critique et interprétative des fondements et rouages rhétoriques, des hypothèses et des valeurs fondatrices formulées implicitement dans deux documents fondateurs. Cette discussion guidera les groupes consultatifs et les communautés autochtones, ainsi que les politiciens et les professionnels responsables de formuler les politiques, en les amenant à articuler d’une manière claire les stratégies d’implémentation dans le contexte plus étendu du développement socio-éducatif des autochtones.
Veuillez télécharger l’article en PDF pour le lire.
This research is funded by the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada (SSHRC).
- Abele, F. (2007). Between respect and control: Traditional Indigenous knowledge in Canadian public policy. In M. Orsini & M. Smith (Eds.), Critical policy studies, (pp. 233-256). Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
- Aboriginal Peoples Survey. (2001). Initial findings: Well-being of the non-reserve Aboriginal population (p. 18). Ottawa: Statistics Canada.
- Achinstein, B., & Ogawa, R. T. (2006). (In)fidelity: What the resistance of new teachers reveals about professional principles and prescriptive educational policies. Harvard Educational Review, 76 (1), 30-63.
- Anderson, D., Horton, L., & Orwick, S. (2004). Aboriginal teacher education: Issues for First Nations communities. Prepared for the A.T.E.P. Advisory Committee.
- Apple, M. W. (2006). Educating the right way: Market, standards, God, and inequality. New York: Routledge.
- Assembly of First Nations. (1988). Tradition and education: Towards a vision of our future. Ottawa, ON: Assembly of First Nations Education Secretariat.
- Assembly of First Nations. (1990). Towards linguistic justice for First Nations. Ottawa, ON: Assembly of First Nations Secretariat.
- Assembly of First Nations Language and Literacy Secretariat. (1994). Breaking the chains: First Nations literacy and self-determination. Ottawa, ON: Assembly of First Nations.
- Battiste, M. (2002). Indigenous knowledge and pedagogy in First Nations education: A literature review with recommendations. Paper prepared for the National Working Group on Education and the Minister of Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC). Ottawa: Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.
- Battiste, M. (2000). Maintaining Aboriginal identity, language, and culture in modern society (pp. 192-208). In M. Battiste (Ed.), Reclaiming Indigenous voice and vision. Vancouver, BC: University of British Columbia Press.
- Battiste, M., & McLean, S. (2005). State of First Nations learning. Prepared for the Canadian Council on Learning. Ottawa, ON: CCL.
- Beaulieu, D. (2006). A survey and assessment of culturally based education programs for Native American students in the United States. Journal of American Indian Education, 45 (2), 50-61.
- Bonvillain, N. (2001). Native nations: Cultures and histories of Native North Americans. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
- Bourdieu, P. (1998). Acts of resistance. New York: Free Press.
- Castellano, M. B., Davis, L., & Lahache, L. (Eds). (2000). Aboriginal education: Fulfilling the promise. Vancouver, BC: UBC Press.
- Cherubini, L. (2009). Aboriginal identity, misrepresentation, and dependence: A survey of the literature. The Canadian Journal of Native Studies, 28 (2), 221-239.
- Cherubini, L., & Hodson, J. (2008). Ontario Ministry of Education policy and Aboriginal learners’ epistemologies: A fundamental disconnect. Canadian Journal of Educational Administration and Policy, 79.
- Cherubini, L., & Hodson, J. (2009). Aboriginal education policy and practice in Ontario public schools: A discussion of practical and ideological implications. American Association of Behavioral and Social Sciences Journal, 13, 21-32.
- Cohen. B. (2001). The spider’s web: Creativity to diversity in dynamic balance. Canadian Journal of Native Education, 25 (2), 140-148.
- Demmert, W., Grissmer, D., & Towner, J. (2006). A review and analysis of the research on Native American students. Journal of American Indian Education, 45 (3), 5-23.
- Dieter-Meyer, H. (2006). The rise and decline of the common school as an institution: Taking myth and ceremony seriously. In H. Dieter-Meyer & B. Rowan (Eds.), The new institutionalism in education (pp. 51-66). New York: State University of New York Press.
- Elijah. (2002). Literature review: Language and culture. Prepared for the Minister’s National Working Group on Education.
- Ellis, C. (1994). A remedy for barbarism: Indian schools, the civilizing program, and the Kiowa-Comanche-Apache Reservation, 1871-1915. American Indian Culture and Research Journal, 18 (3), 85-120.
- First Nations Confederacy of Cultural Education Centres. (2000). Protective legislation for Aboriginal language initiatives. Recommendations and proposals. Ottawa, ON.
- Fishman, J. (2001). Why is it so hard to save a threatened language? In J. Fishman (Ed.), Can threatened languages be saved? (pp. 1-22). Toronto, ON: Multilingual Matters, Ltd.
- Gibson, M. A., & Ogbu, J. U. (1991). Minority status and schooling: A comparative study of immigrant and involuntary minorities. New York: Garland Publishing.
- Gipps, C. (1999). Socio-cultural aspects of assessment. In A. Iran-Nejad & P. D. Pearson (Eds.), Review of Research in Education, 24 (pp. 355-392). Washington, DC: American Educational Research Association.
- Giroux, H.A. (2004). Cultural studies and the politics of public pedagogy: Making the political more pedagogical. Parallax, 10 (2), 73-89.
- Graham, K., Dittburner, C., & Abele, F. (1996). Soliloquy and dialogue: Overview of major trends in public policy relating to Aboriginal peoples. Ottawa, ON: Canada Communication Group.
- Grande, S. (2004). Red pedagogy: Native American social and political thought. Lanham, ML: Rowman & Littlefield.
- Greig, R. (2003). Ethnic identity development: Implications for mental health in African American and Hispanic adolescents. Issues in Mental Health Nursing, 24, 317-331.
- Haig-Brown, C. (1988). Resistance and renewal: Surviving the Indian residential school. Vancouver, BC: Tillacum Library.
- Haig-Brown, C. (2008). Taking Indigenous thought seriously: A rant on globalization with some cautionary notes. Journal of the Canadian Association for Curriculum Studies, 6 (2), 8-24.
- Hallett, D., Want, S. C., Chandler, M. J., Koopman, L. L., Flores, J. P., & Gehrke, E. C. (2008). Identity in flux: Ethnic self-identification, and school attrition in Canadian Aboriginal youth. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology, 29, 62-75.
- Hawthorn, H.B. (1966). A survey of the contemporary Indians of Canada economic, political, educational needs and policies. Indian Affairs Branch: Ottawa, ON.
- Healey, J. F. (2006). Race, ethnicity, gender, and class: The sociology of group conflict and change. Thousand Oaks, CA: Pine Forge Press.
- Hill, D. M. (2000). Indigenous knowledge as a tool for self-determination and liberation. Paper presented at The National Association of Native American Studies Section, Houston, TX, 21-26.
- Hill, D., & George, P. (1996). Native learning styles: An assessment tool. Owen Sound, ON: Ningwakwe Learning Press.
- Huffman, T. (2001). Resistance theory and the transculturation hypothesis explanations of college attrition and persistence among culturally traditional American Indians. Journal of American Indian Education, 40 (3), 1-23.
- Kusugak, J. (2004). Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami lifelong learning. Paper prepared for the Canada-Aboriginal Peoples Roundtable. Ottawa, ON.
- James, R. (1996). Restructuring First Nations’ education: Trust, respect, and governance. Journal of Canadian Studies, 31 (2), 115-127.
- Jones, K. (2006, April). A balanced school accountability model: An alternative to high-stakes testing. Phi Delta Kappan, 584-590.
- Kavanaugh, B. (2005). The role of parental and community involvement in the success of First Nations learners: A review of the literature. A Report to the Minister’s National Working Group on First Nations Education, 1-73.
- Lessow-Hurley, J. (2000). The foundations of dual language instruction (3rded.). New York: Longman.
- Lobo, S., & Talbot, S. (Eds.). (2001). Native American voices. New Jersey: Prentice Hall.
- Lutz, E., & Ledema, N. (2004). Addressing indigenous rights at the United Nations. Cultural Survival Quarterly, 28 (3).
- Lui, M. (2006). Doubly divided: The racial wealth gap. In T. E. Ore (Ed.), The social construction of difference and inequality: Race, class, gender, and sexuality (pp. 99-104). Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
- Macfarlane, A., Glynn, T., Grace, W., Penetito, W., & Bateman, S. (2008). Indigenous epistemology in a national curriculum framework. Ethnicities, 8 (1), 102-127.
- McCarty, T. L. (2002). A place to be Navajo: Rough Rock and the struggle for self-determination in Indigenous schooling. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum.
- Métis National Council. (2007). Health position paper. Prepared for the Canada-Aboriginal Peoples Roundtable. Ottawa, ON: Author.
- Minister of Indian Affairs and Northern Development. (1997). Gathering strength: Canada’s Aboriginal action plan. Ottawa, ON: Ministry of Indian Affairs and Northern Development.
- Moran, B. (1998). Stoney Creek woman: The story of Mary John. Vancouver, BC: Arsenal Pulp Press.
- National Indian Brotherhood. (1972). Indian control of Indian education. Committee recommendations. Ottawa, ON: National Indian Brotherhood.
- National Indian Brotherhood. (1988). Traditions and education. Toward a vision of our future. Ottawa, ON: National Indian Brotherhood.
- Neal, R. (2004). Voices: Women, poverty and homelessness in Canada. The National AntiPoverty Organization. Ottawa, ON.
- Neegan, E. (2005). Excuse me? Who are the first peoples of Canada? A historical analysis of Aboriginal education in Canada then and now. International Journal of Inclusive Education, 9 (1), 3-15.
- Ontario Ministry of Education. (2007a, November). Aboriginal education strategy. Toronto, ON: Queen’s Printer.
- Ontario Ministry of Education. (2007b). Ontario First Nation, Métis, and Inuit education policy framework. Toronto, ON: Aboriginal Education Office.
- Ontario Ministry of Education. (2007c). Building bridges to success for First Nation, Métis, and Inuit Students. Toronto, ON: Aboriginal Education Office.
- Oakes, J., Hunter Quartz, K., Ryan, S., & Lipton, M. (2002). Becoming good American schools: The struggle for civic virtue in education reform. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
- Ore, T. E. (Ed.). (2006). The social construction of difference and inequality: Race, class, gender and sexuality. Boston, MA: McGraw Hill.
- Paquette, J. (2007). Supporting First Nations secondary students studying away from home: A case history of policy gone awry. Journal of Canadian Studies, 41 (2), 88-111.
- Pewewardy, C., & Hammer, P. (2003). Culturally responsive teaching for American Indian students. Charleston, WV: ERIC Clearinghouse on Rural Education and Small Schools.
- Piquemal, N. (2005). Cultural loyalty: Aboriginal students take an ethical stance. Reflective Practice, 6 (4), 523-538.
- Portes, A., & Rumbaut, R. G. (2001). Legacies: The story of the immigrant second generation. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.
- Canadian Council on Learning. (2007). Redefining how success is measured in First Nations, Inuit and Métis Learning. Report on Learning in Canada, Ottawa, ON: Author.
- Robertson, H. J. (2003). Decolonizing schools. Phi Delta Kappan, 84, 552-553.
- Rose, N. (1996). The death of the social? Re-figuring the territory of government. Economy and Society, 25 (3), 327-56.
- Royal Commission on Aboriginal Peoples. (1996). Report of the Royal Commission of Aboriginal Peoples, 5 vols. Ottawa, ON: Canada Communications Group.
- Sellars, B. (1993). Survival against all odds. In L. Jaine (Ed.), Residential schools: The stolen years (pp. 129-135). Saskatoon, SK: University of Extension Press.
- Shkedi, A., & Nisan, M. (2006). Teachers’ cultural ideology: Patterns of curriculum and teaching culturally valued texts. Teachers College Record, 108 (4), 687-725.
- Statistics Canada. (2003). Aboriginal peoples’ survey – Initial findings: Well-being of the non-reserve Aboriginal population. Ottawa, Canada: Author.
- Statistics Canada. (2008). Aboriginal identity population by age groups, median age and sex, 2006 counts, for Canada and census metropolitan areas and census agglomerations – 20% sample data (table). Aboriginal Peoples Highlight Tables. 2006b Census. Statistics Canada Catalogue no. 97-558-XWE2006002. Ottawa. Released January 15, 2008. Retrieved January 24, 2008, from http://www12.statcan.ca/english/census06/data/highlights/aboriginal/index.cfm?Lang=E
- Stephan, C. W., & Stephan, W. G. (2000). The measurement of racial and ethnic identity. International Journal of Intercultural Relations, 24, 541-552.
- Thompson Cooper, I., & Stacey Moore, G. (2009). Walking in the good way. Toronto: Canadian Scholars’ Press.
- Verkuyten, M. (2003). Positive and negative self-esteem among ethnic minority early adolescents: Social and cultural sources and threats.Journal of Youth and Adolescents, 32(4), 267-277.
- Womack, C. S. (1999). Red on red: Native American literary separatism. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.