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World population area unit increasing day by day staggeringly, thus agricultural production is additionally rising within the same thanks to feed them. Additionally, we have a tendency to conjointly achieve some landmarks in cereal production by victimization of new varieties, fertilizers, and pesticides. Pesticides aren't forever best since they are not eco-friendly. After that, the Integrated Pest Management (IPM) system approach confers commercial enterprise production and pest management practices to attenuate the economic losses caused by pests. Several plant protection specialists developed multi-tactical methods for dominant pests within the early twentieth century, wishing on information of pest biology and cultural practices (Gaines 1957). Observation causes and protective the pests' natural enemies area unit the key parts of pest management. As an environmentally safe and cost-efficient management technique for a large vary of inver-tebrate pests, insect pathogens befell confirmed to be effective. Today, pest-associated losses makeup a minimum of Bastille Day of the overall agricultural production (Oerke 2006) and may diminish by minimizing pest-associated losses (H.C. Sharma and Rao 1995).

A massive application of pesticides to attenuate losses thanks to insect pests, diseases, and weeds has resulted in an exceedingly high chemical residue in food and food product, which harms useful organisms within the setting. Presently an outsized variety of insect species area unit immune to presently offered pesticides, that has needed the applying of upper doses or a lot of frequent application of pesticides. Crop advancement has created the “Green Revolution” one in all the assorted important scientific shifts in social science history. Rice, wheat, and maize production have widened undeviatingly over the past decade, surpassing the past century’s accomplishments (Swaminathan 2000). The use of advanced mechanisms of biological science to pest oversight will considerably enhance food production. Crop production and protection and its sub-components should be positively interconnected (Fig. 1). Environmental and climate change should not affect the impact of which.

Transgenic insect-resistant crops have done extensively exhibited prompting various considerations concerning their interactions with non-target organisms within the setting, the biosafety of food derived from genetically designed crops, and their environmental impact. Cotton and Bt cotton area under cultivation in India augmented from 2002-03 to 2019-20 (Fig. 2) due to technological advances and better farm management practices. Insect pests are often managed by victimization natural enemies, biopesticides, natural plant product, and pest-resistant varieties. Thus, molecular biological tools are often wont to management insect pests, like alpha-amylase inhibitors of plants (Franco et al. 2002), hemoprotein-P450 monooxygenase, vacuolar ATPase (Mao et al. 2007), enzyme modulating oostatic issue (TMOF) (Tortiglione et al. 2002), enzyme inhibitors (PIs) (Tamhane et al. 2007), with the exception of sterol enzyme (CHOx) (Shukle and Murdock 1983), lipoxygenases catalyst (Felton et al. 1994), etc., may play polar roles here. To boot, biological science involves victimization recombinant DNA technology to develop stronger natural enemies and microbes a lot of virulent than natural enemies. The treatise centered on the safety of genetically changed plants, the detection of transgenic(s) in food and food product, and also the applications of recent biotechnology to pest management and property agriculture. As food security continues to be vulnerable by organic phenomenon stress, at a time once various maneuvers area unit desperately required, this chapter is especially relevant. Researchers, scientists, NGOs, directors, and students can all enjoy this technology within the 21st century.

Figure 1

Interlinking of domains

Interlinking of domains

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Figure 2

Year-wise area under cotton, Bt cotton, production and yield of cotton during 2002-03 to 2019-20

Year-wise area under cotton, Bt cotton, production and yield of cotton during 2002-03 to 2019-20
Source: Government of India 2020

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Molecular approach to insect pest management

For economic process to continue for the predictable future, productivity gains area unit essential. However, within the short run, they’re even a lot of imperative for maintaining food provides. The appraisal and sensible analysis of molecular tools which implicated for increasing crop production area unit crucial. Molecular biological tools area unit utilized in crop improvement and so plant alpha-amylase inhibitors use for insect pest management (Franco et al. 2002). vacuolar ATPase, hemoprotein P450 monooxygenase (Mao et al. 2007), enzyme modulating oostatic issue (TMOF) (Tortiglione et al. 2002), enzyme inhibitors (PIs) (Tamhane et al. 2007), with the exception of sterol enzyme (CHOx) (Shukle and Murdock 1983), lipoxygenases catalyst (Felton et al. 1994), etc., have tremendous roles. Among the essential amino acids area unit those that enhance time period and postharvest quality, enhance chemical element uptake and fixation, combat soil salinity, and aluminum toxicity, improve chemical action, sugar production, starch yield, and crop yield, and turn out antibodies, prescription drugs, and vaccines. With the introduction of recent crop cultivars that area unit immune to insect pests and diseases, along-side biocontrol agents, it ought to be potential to cut back the necessity for pesticides among farmers whereas benefiting each the setting and public health.

Plant catalyst matter in insect pest management

Enzymatic inhibitors act on the insect gut organic process enzymes, like alpha-amylases and proteinases, which play a vital role within the digestion of plant starch and proteins. The treatments conjointly embody lectin-like and knottin-like inhibitors, cereal-type inhibitors, Kunitz inhibitors, gamma-purothionin inhibitors, and thaumatin inhibitors (Franco et al. 2002). Introducing an alpha-amylase matter into a transgenic pea, Phaseolus vulgaris L. prevented the seed weevil larvae from developing. Alpha-amylase inhibitors defend plants from predators, as well as bruchids, Lacanobia oleracea (L.), Bruchus pisorum (L.) in transgenic peas. Amaranth seeds inhibited alpha-amylase activity in Tecia solanivora (Povolny) larvae (Valencia-Jimenez et al. 2008).

A K+ pump creates electrical variations in midgut cells that alter nutrient uptake. Besides, the K+ pump dominates the hydrogen ion concentration of the midgut lumen and circumscribes the atomic number 19 consistency in blood, animal tissue cadres, and midgut lumen. A nucleon ATPase of the vacuolar-type is that the primary motor for transport. As an example, transgenic corn sprouts exposing dsRNA of a V-ATPase from western corn rootworm showed a major decrease in corn rootworm feeding and harm to plants. The mono-oxygenase part of hemoprotein-P450 equips insects to tolerate oppositely restrictive solidities of gossypol, a cotton substance. As an example, Helicoverpa armigera (Hübner) ate up plants revealing hemoprotein-P450 dsRNA grew more well-off. Mao et al. (2007) found that gossypol considerably restrained growth. Among the category of plant defence proteins those stop insects pest infestations area unit enzyme inhibitors. By inhibiting endogenous enzymes, it’s potential to argue that they shield plants against insects and presumably pathogens (K. Sharma 2015). In direct response to mechanical wounds and bug attacks, plants turn out enzyme inhibitors constitutively and induced enzyme inhibitors. The vapours discharged by these plants may attract predators of insect herbivores once insect harm. Uninjured plants factory-made protease inhibitors being a consequence of the liberation of animated syntheses once gashing, like alkyl jasmonate-cotton substance, creating them a lot of immune to insects. Adding enzyme inhibitors to substitute nutrition or expressing them in transgenic manufactories lead to inflated mortalities among insects, significantly those happiness to animal order, Orthoptera, and Lepidoptera (Tamhane et al. 2007).

Trypsin-modulating oostatic inhibit the maturity and construction of dipterous insect larvae death by starvation for larvae that kill them (Lau et al. 2011). The amide blocks the synthesis of enzyme in mosquitoes, Aedes aegypti (L.), and flesh flies. As an example, vaccination or verbal bodily process of Aea-TMOF pissed off enzyme synthesis and larval completion in Heliothis virescens (Fabricius). Tortiglione et al. (2002) found H. virescens mortality inflated with Aea-TMOF-expressing transgenic tobacco plants. Lipoxygenases catalyst created from plants might play a job within the host's resistance against insect pests. Unsaturated fatty acids area unit hydroperoxides created by dioxygenase enzymes in plants that harm insect midgut membranes. Lipoxygenase from soybeans, as an example, impedes the adulthood of Manduca sexta (L.) once glued to an imitation diet (Shukle and Murdock 1983). Treatments reduced Helicoverpa zea (Boddie) larvae growth by 24% to 63% (Felton et al. 1994).

Cholesterol enzyme (CHOx) is an enzyme that catalyzes the chemical reaction of sterol. Sterol enzyme (3β-hydroxysteroid enzyme, EC created by each morbific and nonpatho-genic microorganisms, as well as mycobacteria, Brevibacterium, actinomycete, eubacteria, Arthrobacter, Pseudomonas, Rhodococcus, Chromobacterium, and Bacillus species (Devi and Kanwar 2017). Peroxide is created from sterol and alternative 3-hydroxysterols by this microorganism catalyst, and also the corresponding 3-hydroxysterols and midgut membranes broken because the principal perform. As an example, the sterol enzyme from actinomycete caused acrobatics of H. virescens, H. zea, and Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) once consolidated into an artificial nutrition. Consolidating tobacco leaves expressing sterol enzyme into artificial diets prompted extinction and determined acrobatics in baby boll weevil larvae (Corbin et al. 2001). Immunity in insects begins with the basic cognitive process of microbic infection. Microbic pattern recognition proteins, like hemolin, area unit coupled to causation this protecting result. As an example, hemolin ribonucleic acid was injected into lepidopterous insect pupae of large silkmoths, Hyalophoracecropia (L.) and also the moths developed frequently. The eggs with deformed embryos didn't turn out larvae once sexual activity (Eleftherianos et al. 2006). It absolutely was determined that previous unwellness of M. sexta larvae with a nonpathogenic Escherichia coli T. Escherich, angry protection versus ensuant contamination as well as the deadly micro-organism Photorhabdus luminescens (Thomas et Poinar). An insect injected with hemolin ribonucleic acid was likewise sensitive to P. luminescens infection than an insect that had not antecedently been infected with E. coli physiology differs between insect species. An insect organic process PI prevents supermolecule digestion by binding to insect proteases preventing chemical action. By under nourishing the larvae of super molecules and indispensable amino acids, it frustrates their completion and development. Examples, mouse-ear cress serPin-1 reduced genus Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) biomass by 38% once four days of feeding, barley enzyme matter reduced genus Spodoptera exigua (Hübner) survival by 29%, bovine spleen enzyme matter reduced H. armigera growth (Christeller et al. 2002), and cowpea enzyme matter shrunken mortality in H. armigera and H. virescens.

Multivalent carbohydrates plight to midgut animal tissue blocks, inhibiting their gathering, interrupting nutrient transmission, and starting in all probability corrosive parts to be assimilated. As an example, soybean seed glycoprotein inhibited the expansion of M. sexta. Agglutinins from aliment were noxious once fed to Ostrinia nubilalis (Hübner). Peritrophic membranes were discontinuous within the anterior midgut microvilli. Antibody (WGA) inhibited powerfully the expansion of O. nubilalis, however not that of M. sexta. Once disclosed to WGA, O. nubilalis larvae caused extraordinarily disguised polymers within the anterior midgut lumen and destroyed microvilli, consecutive showing in no a lot of prolonged feeding. The event of L. oleracea larvae was reduced by transgenic potatoes expressing Anemone quinquefolia (L.) glycoprotein. S. littoralis larvae were dim-witted in transgenic tobacco plants expressing leaf (ASAL) and bulb (ASAII) agglutinins from garlic. Mediterranean flour moth larval growth qualified by Moringa oleifera lectin (cMoL) consolidated into artificial nutrition. Immature extinction extended thanks to increased evolution past.

Vegetative insecticidal protein (Vip)

Insect-pathogenic microorganisms like Bacillus cereus dicot genus and B. thuringiensis Berliner secrete insecticidal proteins that accumulate in crystals and inclusion bodies. The plantative insecticidal proteins act as binary toxins against lepidopteran, coleopteran and hemipteran insects. Its supermolecule binds to receptors on the midgut membrane and enters the cell wherever it inhibits microfilament formation by showing its ADP-ribosyl enzyme activity (Chakroun et al. 2016). A Vip-treated animal of Agrotis ipsilon (Hufnagel), Spodoptera frugiperda Smith, Helicoverpa zea (Boddie), Trichoplusia ni (Hübner), Plutella xylostella (L.), Pieris brassicaewere (L.) paralytic, had his animal tissue cells utterly lysed, and died (Sellamiet et al. 2011).

Biosafety evaluations and eco-friendliness enclosed in genetically changed crops (GM). A world increase in GM cotton crop space and production has occurred from 1.7 million hectares in 1996 to 191.7 million hectares in 2018 (Government of India 2020). A complete of 99 of the worldwide yield comes from five major biotech crops – soybeans, maize, cotton, canola, and alfalfa (English and Schreiber 2020). Whereas some insect populations have evolved resistance to Bt proteins, Bt transgenics are widely used for insect pest management, in the main to manage lepidopterous insects. It’s been shown that the corn insecticidal supermolecule, IPD072Aa, derived from Pseudomonas chlororaphis (Guignard and Sauvageau), confers resistance to western corn rootworm (WCR), that may be a damaging crop pest in North America and in Europe. Though it’s effective against some Lepidoptera and order Hemiptera (Schellenberger et al. 2016), it is not effective against all of them.

At one purpose in time, 22 crops from 41 countries were approved, grown, and commercialized as genetically designed (GE) crops. The suspension of some cultivation has occurred. The grayed-out countries now not grow GE crops (Fig. 3).

Figure 3

Global area of biotech crops, 1996 to 2018

Global area of biotech crops, 1996 to 2018
Source: ISAAA 2018

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Compounds in winter melon (HVC)

Honeydew contains organic acids, amino acids, and lipids (Hussain et al. 1974; Leroy, Wathelet et al. 2011; Mittler 1958) secreted by consumption insects like aphids. Additionally to its use as a food supplement (Hogervorst et al. 2007; Lee et al. 2004; Wackers 2000), it acts as a volatile substance for parasitoids and predators (Almohamad et al. 2009; Budenberg et al. 1992; Buitenhuis et al. 2004; Choi et al. 2004; Du et al. 1997; Scholz and Poehling 2000; Verheggen et al. 2008). Microorganisms will turn out semiochemicals that act as associate attracting or replanting agent for the natural enemies of various insects (Epsky et al. 1998; Robacker and Lauzon 2002; Robacker et al. 1998). Solely a number of studies have examined whether or not microorganism area unit able to turn out volatile compounds (Bunge et al. 2008; Kai et al. 2009; Schulz and Dickschat 2007). In some studies, two microorganisms were isolated from the gut of pea aphids, Staphylococcussciuri and within the winter melon flora of untamed aphids, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, that enhance louse natural enemies’ effectiveness (Harad et al. 1996; Haynes et al. 2003; Leroy, Sabri et al. 2011).

Nanotechnology and insect pest control

Nanotechnology and bug tormenter management presently, engineering science, is getting used as a tool for crop protection and tormenter management. Nanoparticles are also used as carriers or as pesticides or pesticides. By making many sorts of natural resource-based virulent materials victimization engineering science, we are able to play a very important role in crop protection.

A nanomolecular polymer

Globalization has brought new dimensions, innovations, and changes in plant protection technology. Animals, humans, and also the settings are considerably improved with new steps in agricultural security. As a results of advances in plant protection and new developments in engineering science, crops everywhere the globe area unit protected against insects and diseases. Additionally to developing new nano-materials, engineering science also can facilitate to provide new insect tormenter resistant varieties by written material and the genetic makeup of crops varieties (Gopal et al. 2012; Savary et al. 2006; Sparks et al. 2012). For instance, some vital chemical compound typically utilized in the nanoparticles production viz., anionic surfactants (Elek et al. 2010); carboxymethyl chitosanricinoleic acid (Azadirachtin) (Feng and Peng 2012); lignin-polyethylene glycol-ethylcellulose and chitosan-poly(lactide) (Imidacloprid) (Flores-Cespedes et al. 2012; Li et al. 2011); polythene (Piperonyl, Butoxide and Deltamethrin) (Frandsen et al. 2010); acrylic acid-buacrylate (Itraconazole) (Goldshtein et al. 2005); polymer, vinylethylene and vinylacetate (Pheromones) (Hellmann et al. 2011; Wright 1997); alginate-glutaraldehyde (neem seed oil) (Kulkarni et al. 1999); N-(octadecanol-1-glycidyl ether)-O-sulfate chitosan with octadecanol glycidyl ether (rotenone) (Lao et al. 2010).

Gold nanoparticles

The wonderful physical and chemical properties of the neon-technology change their use nowadays in medicine, environ-mental, and biological analyses. Aaegypti, genus Anopheles stephensi Liston, arthropod genus quaccifeias, Benelli (2018), and arthropod genus Slitura area unit a number of the vectors that area unit managed with gross national product nowadays (Chakravarthy et al. 2012; Chandrashekharaiah et al. 2015) in zoology.

Chitosan and agrochemical loaded nanoparticles

Agrochemicals were loaded (spinosad and permethrin) into the chemical compound nanoparticles created by A. Sharma et al. (2019). Perishable, non-toxic, biocompatible, and adsorbent, chitosan has glorious sorption properties. As check ways for survivability and climb of Drosophila melanogaster Meigen and arthropod genus litura, agrochemical-loaded chitosan nano formulations were the foremost effective (Chandra et al. 2013). Chinese corn borer, which ends in death, was spellbound to a fluorescent nanoparticle that supported genetic management (Bicheng et al. 2013).

Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs)

Some researchers have reported the medication, antiviral, and antifungal properties of silver nanoparticles (Panáček et al. 2009; Santhoshkumar et al. 2011; Shankar et al. 2004) and additionally, leaf extract from dicot genus indica has antifeedant, larvicidal, and cytotoxic properties against H. armigera (Vendan et al. 2009). These AgNPs were accustomed management the adults of Sitophilus oryzae (L.), Haemaphysalis bispinosa Neumann and Hippobosca maculate (Zahir and Rahuman 2012; Zahir et al. 2012). As associate antecedent of AgNPs, leaf extracts of Manilkara zapota (L.) were applied to housefly (Kamaraj et al. 2012).


Vatanparast and Kim (2017) have shown that some insect pests will be controlled by RNA interference (RNAi) of a particular target cistron chymotrypsins (SeCHYs) to survive, the Sexigua, arthropod genus exigua, depends on construct insecticidal dsRNA in massive amounts since ribonucleinase activity within the midgut lumen reduces RNA interference (RNAi) activities. It’s counselled to focus on the young larvae that possess the very best levels of RNAi potency as a result of they possess a lot of RNase accelerator activity, giving them a lot of insecticidal activity against S. exigua.

The researchers have shown that even RNAi-mediated cistron silencing will be an alternate methodology of dominant pests of insects, as a result of it directly knocks down the target cistron through the oral administration of poly (diethylene glycol) or endocytosis (Katoch et al. 2013). To boot, with the event of biotechnological tools, more target genes are explored for insect tormenter management. It’s necessary to know the technique on every level. However, in order that forthcoming obstacles will be discovered. Insect pests area unit currently controlled victimization of double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) created by artificial means that diet plays an important role in preventing a species of Coleoptera is that the western corn rootworm, Diabrotica virgifera virgifera LeConte. Insects of the lepidopteran and coleopteran genera were the most raisers of insecticidal proteins created by true bacteria Bthuringiensis before the invention of engineering science. Within the current state of affairs of insect resistance emergence, thus, the event of various modes of biotechnological tools can be helpful (Baum et al. 2007). MicroRNAs (miRNAs) and short meddling RNAs (siRNAs) area unit RNAi biogenesis categories in insects (Burand and Hunter 2013). By physical science and physical mechanisms, nanostructured corundum (NSA) bestowed to kill insect pests. Electrons are generated by oxidizing metals and creating particle-based electrical charges. Outwardly connected insects turn out turboelectric assessments. United States intelligence agency involves two steps: first, charged insect particles area unit electrically sure to charge United States intelligence agency particles. A second reason is that United States intelligence agency particles, because of their powerful sorbtive properties, take away the insect’s cuticle, that causes dehydration, that ultimately kills the insect. Because of static discharge, particles adhere to insect cuticle surfaces disrupting water balance, and their effectiveness declines as close humidness will increase. As results of its intrinsic charge, tiny particle size, and huge specific area, the United States intelligence agency incorporates a high insecticidal effectiveness.

Figure 4

Components of nanotechnology

Components of nanotechnology

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Nanobiopesticides: challenges and futuristic approaches

There may be an encouragement for nanopesticides in agriculture. Still, people's seats affect unchangeable wellness difficulties to the neurotic way if they intersect the blood-brain, blood-placental, and blood-retina barriers. By manipulating the molecular configuration of textiles, nanotechnology can modify their inherent possessions and convey others with rebellious applications (Fig. 4). In appreciation to investigating the element configuration of the staple matter, nanopesticides are currently being scrutinized for their mechanical and biochemical attributes, such as intensity, electrical ammunition, and exterior qualities, which pretend significant intimidation to human fitness (Zielińska et al. 2020). Increasing resistance to a group of insect pests could cause the plant to become more aggressive as a weed. Rapeseed genetically engineered for insect resistance was shown to have a better reproductive chance than nontransgenic rapeseed in experiments imposing strong herbivorous insects’ selective pressure (Stewart et al. 1997). During its growth, weeds that can resist certain insect pests may become more aggressive. Genetically modified rapeseed showed a better reproductive potential under selective pressure from insect pests (Stewart et al. 1997) compared with nontransgenic rapeseed. Transgenic plants' effects on pollinators will trust heavily the investigation of the gene entangled and its declaration in plants that honeybees swallow (Malone and Pham-Delègue 2001). The environmental risk is associated with the fluidity of genetic material within and between species (Chevre et al. 1996; Darmency 1994). Nanotechnology applications can lead to more environmentally friendly biopesticides, more stable active ingredients, improved efficacy, broader adoption, easy to apply, can be targeted in delivery, significantly reduce pesticide load, and protect microbiota and contribute to biopesticide degradation (Deshpande 2019). Certain biological substances can be made more effective against pests, less toxic to humans and the environment, encapsulated in nanoparticle systems with nanotechnology, and reduced physical degradation (Medin-Pérez et al. 2019). Promoting sustainable and eco-friendly pest management strategies with synthetic pesticides is exciting in modern entomology, which sits as sundry jeopardies for human and environmental safety. An eco-friendly pest control route is possible by using “green” pesticides in conjunction with nanotechnology (Pavoni et al. 2019).

It is possible to use nanobiotechnology to manage insect pests in different ways, and it presents great potential for use in integrated pest management systems. Enhanced control of pests and disease vectors will be a massive benefit if this technology is used. Substituting protease inhibitors and Bt-δ-endotoxins for conventional insecticides could educate selection stress, slowed resistance development. There would be no need to continuously monitor pests since all plant parts would be covered with toxins. Furthermore, transgenic plants would protect plant parts that are difficult to treat with insecticides. Low cultivation costs. Drift and groundwater contamination are low. Crop plants would only be targeted by insecticidal activity. Animals and humans not targeted are safe. Biosynthesis of the toxins occurs on-site. Agricultural merchandise can be concocted, stored, packaged, and transported using nanotechnology at every stage in the process. Nanotechnology-based synthesis of potential or controlled-release pesticides has demonstrated infinite effectiveness over other pesticide performance practices. Biological compe-tency is achieved when the agrochemicals are released at a measured amount over a specified period to minimize losses or adverse effects (Shojaei et al. 2019). By combining nano-particles with other substances, new formulations can be created, such as pesticides, insecticides, insect repellents, pheromones, and fertilizers. The necessary offering arrangement ensures a maintained deliverance of the vital constituent at the scapegoat position over time. The addition of the pesticide efficacy time decreases the regularity of pesticide application. Reducing the chemical input to plants by improving bioefficacy. Limiting photo-degradation of light-sensitive compounds to reduce non-target toxicity. In the ecosystem, pesticides are released over time to protect biodiversity (Hayles et al. 2017; Yu et al. 2017).

Food and agriculture suffer numerous difficulties in the present world today. Nanotechnology is one potential and securing midpoints to attain a clarification. By manipulating a molecule's attributes, nanomanipulation can imagine complexes that augment the inherent utilization in agriculture (Lade et al. 2019). According to Joshi et al. (2019), nanotechnology in agriculture is principally utilized to depreciate the volume of blanket chemicals, diminish nutrient impairments throughout fertilization, and enhance crop yields through nutrient and pest management. Use of nanotechnology in nutrient mana-gement, nanocoating, nanoencapsulation, plant regulators, precision agriculture, pest and disease management, agronomy and environmental sensitivity, genetic manipulation of crops, application in food industries (Food Packaging & Food Processing and Safety), etc.

The literature has announced numerous new compounds that can be used as biopesticides (Table 1). Still, additional field investigation is required to conclude whether they are effective against specific pests in different cropping operations. Clitoria ternatea L. extract against H. armigera species (Mensah et al. 2014), B. thuringiensis var. tenebrionis strain Xd3 (Btt-Xd3) against Agelastica alni (L.) (Eski et al. 2017), alkaloid compound oxymatrine against Spodoptera litura (Fabricius), H. armigera and Aphis gossypii Glover (Rao and Kumari 2016), stilbenes isolated from grapevine extracts against S. littoralis (Pavela et al. 2017) and olive mill waste against various insect pests (El-Abbassi et al. 2017). Insignificant elements, nanoparticles occupy distinct chemical, optical, mechanical, and irresistible properties because of their large exterior stretches (Bhan et al. 2018). Efficient enforcement methods for water and fertilizer, tiny bionanocapsules, and nanosensors for vector and pest management can improve agricultural potency. There is no proxy for conventional strategies to pest management, and spraying indiscriminately with toxic chemicals has adverse effects on the environment, animals, and humans. Thus, nanotechnology presents an excellent alternative to harmful chemical pesticides in agriculture. Nanotechnology-enhanced crops protection tools based on intensification crop production and productivity, enhancement crop tolerance, improvement in crop growth, produced transgenic crop plants, resistant varieties, food processing improvement, soil augmentation, operation correction, stretch sensitivity, etc. (Shang et al. 2019).

Table 1

Nanoemulsion sources in different crop plants

Nanoemulsion sources in different crop plants

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Bionanotechnology is an unprecedented new engendering tool for looking at insects and is conceivably essential for agriculture’s property, eco-friendly development within the gift. The technology might facilitate in reducing the utilization of harmful chemicals for crop protection and at the same time cut back the pollution burden related to chemical usage. Bionanotechnology tools have spectacular consequences alone as they need consecutive importance and facilitate with tormenter supervision in improvement to decreasing the price of facilities and operation. Additionally, it fits most of the distances while not poignant the areas though insects follow a dynamic equilibrium. Transgenic crops area unit unlikely to cause health issues for humans. However we have a tendency to not exclude health risks since there’s not enough info regarding them. New proteins might act as allergens or toxins, altered host metabolisms might end in new allergens or toxins, and dietary deficiencies or health issues might result from reduced nutritional value. To ensure the long-term security of food and to mitigate insect pest-induced organic phenomenon stress, these various methods are important. It’s conjointly helpful for college students, scientists, NGOs, directors, and researchers in developing some ways to combat insect pests.