Quoique l'évaluation des tâches soit une technique de plus en plus utilisée dans nos entreprises, il n'en demeure pas moins qu'elle est souvent peu comprise de ceux qui l'appliquent, la défendent ou la combattent. De plus, bien des systèmes ont mal fonctionné ou tout simplement échoué parce qu'on attendait d'eux des résultats qu'ils ne pouvaient ou ne devaient pas produire.
Job evaluation is an objective technique to establish the relative importance of jobs in a given group. The wage structure may be the result of the application of a job evaluation system, but such a system can serve many other purposes. Therefore, the wage structure itself is independant of the job evaluation technique and must be discussed outside the committee involved in the process of evaluating the jobs.
Job evaluation is a technique, not a science. It is a tool which permits an objective judgment on the importance of a job in relation with others. Therefore, both parties, management and employees, should participate in the process of evaluating jobs. Job evaluation, however, must be done by competent persons. If everybody in the organizations has a word to say on how the problem must be solved, there are great possibilities that the plan will never be applied because of deadlocks which will arise.
One main problem which has to be solved in designing a job evaluation system is the weight to be given to factors and sub-factors. There is important differences between plans, in particular between the C.W.S. and the N.E.M.A., when the former gives about 25% of the points to skill and 50% to responsibility and the latter gives 50% to skill and 20% to responsibility.
One can say that the weight gives to factors depends on the degree of evolution of the society, the labor market and first of all on the caracteristics of the jobs which are to be evaluated. As far as the C.W.S. and the N.E.M.A. are concerned, it is possible that their differences are only apparent as skill and responsibility work in the same direction, i.e. a job requiring great skill imposes also great responsibility on the incumbent, so that we can vary the weight between these two without influencing the final result.
The main advantage of a job evaluation system is to remunarate a job according to the requirements of the job and not to the individual himself, and to permit an objective judgment on the relative importance of jobs in a given group.
Veuillez télécharger l’article en PDF pour le lire.
DESCHENES, JEAN-PAUL, B.A., Maître en Sciences Sociales (Laval), Master of Science in Engineering (The Johns Hopkins University), membre de l'American Institute of Industrial Engineers, professeur au département des relations industrielles, Université Laval.