L'harmonisation de la gestion des ressources humaines à la stratégie est souvent conçue dans une perspective statique qui a le résultat imprévu, au fil du temps, de rendre difficile l'adaptation de l'entreprise aux exigences concurrentielles et techniques nouvelles. L'objet de ce texte est d'esquisser, d'une manière dynamique, la relation entre la gestion des ressources humaines et la stratégie afin d'assurer le progrès de l'entreprise.
The subject of this article is the relation between corporate strategy and the management of human resources. Three strategies are studied: entrepreneurship, growth and rejuvenation. The entrepreneurial strategy, especially in emerging industries, is characterized by groping moves and successive adaptations of products and technologies to effective demand. High levels of uncertainty exist as to product designs, customer expectations and technical choices: Swift adaptations are thus required. The corresponding approach to the management of human resources is first and foremost recruitment of managerial and scientific personnel trained in relevant «incubators» so as to balance the skills and competencies which the firm requires. This personnel is given discretion in an informal and flexible organizational context. The entrepreneurial team is thus in a position to modify products, services and distribution networks until the demand generated can sustain a viable enterprise. In the process many firms fail, some perform adequately and only a few become large scale. The growth strategy is characteristic of those firms which operate in industries where major technical and economic uncertainties have been reduced by successful entrepreneurs and where penetration of successive market segments leads to regular growth. In such industries, the critical strategic choices have been made and the focus is on the exploitation of opportunities. The approach to the management of human resources is oriented towards the achievement of coherence between the abilities and competencies of managers and the key competitive tasks required to attain success and performance. The process of arriving at coherence hinges on the integration of plans and management Systems for human resources to strategie corporate planning. However, this approach often entails the development of a corporate culture which promotes patterns of actions and world views which may render the firm unable to adapt over the years to declining demand, substitute products and new technologies. As a consequence many successful firms experience decline and decay as their industry matures. The strategy of rejuvenation may be achieved by the acquisition of growing firms thus leading to a multi-divisional and diverse organizational form. Many firms, however, discover that opportunities for acquisitions have dwindled and are thus obliged to base their re-orientation on the potential of their human resources. The external transformation and rejuvenation of human resources may be attained by i) the development and appointment of managers who symbolize new orientations and who undertake transitions in the corporate culture; ii) the planning of succession in managerial roles through transfer, development and the broadening of individual experiences; and iii) the promotion of internal entrepreneurship. Continual reassessment of human resources policies is required to insure their appropriateness in the light of the competitive context.
Veuillez télécharger l’article en PDF pour le lire.