Les auteurs comparent les communautés d'hyphomycètes aquatiques récoltés dans l'écume de 7 cours d'eau du Béarn et des Landes. L'abondance de spores observées dans les deux régions diffère considérablement (174-1175 spores/µl en Béarn et 2-57 spores/µl dans les Landes) tandis que les variations de richesse spécifique apparaissent faibles. L'influence de la végétation riveraine et du pH de l'eau est discutée.
Des expériences de dégradation in vitro montrent que des souches isolées de Tetracladium marchalianum, Heliscus lugdunensis et dans une moindre mesure Anguillospora longissima présentent une activité cellulolytique. T. marchalianum et H. lugdunensis, participent activement à la décomposition de litière de saule blanc, avec respectivement 21,7 et 18,2 % de dégradation après 5 semaines à 18°C.
Aquatic Hyphomycetes : their role in the decomposition of Ieaf-litter
Aquatic hyphomycete communities from the foam of seven streams in the Bearn and Landes regions of France were compared at four different dates. The total number of species was similar in the two regions, but common species (> 5 spores/µl) in the Bearn were twice as abundant as in the Landes. Mean spore concentrations in the Bearn and Landes streams were in a ratio of 10 : 1. In the Bearn, spore concentration and the number of fungal species increased considerably in autumn, subsequent to the fall of leaf litter into the streams. Analysis of variance of spore concentrations (original or transformed data) in the two regions showed that date, station and the interaction of these two factors were highly significant parameters (P ANOVA < 0.0001). Alatospora acuminate was the commonest species both in the Bearn (77 % annual mean) and in the Landes (41 %). After A. acuminata, Clavatospora stellata (7 %) and Tetracladium marchalianum (4 %,) in the Bearn, Flagellospora curvula (28 %) and Clavastospora longibrachiata (20 %) in the Landes were the dominant species of the mycoflora. Five species new to France were noted : Actinospora megalospora Ingold, Camposporium pellucidum (Grave) Hugues, Diplocladiella scalaroides Arnaud, Flabellospora acuminata Descals and Triscelophorus monosporus Ingold. The difference in fungal richness between the two regions was suggested to be due to the composition of the riparian vegetation, the phenology of the litter fall, the presence (or absence) of plant matter accumulation in the stream, and the pH of the stream water. Litter deposits in the Landes streams were rare and made up exclusivey of pine needles, the few deciduous leaves which fall being exported to surrounding lakes and to the ocean. Water pH was always low (5.0-5.5). The riparian vegetation of the Bearn streams, on the contrary, was abundant and varied Cash, common locust-tree, alder, willow, oak, chestnut, poplar). Moreover the neutral or weakly acid pH of the Bearn streams (6.3-7.0) seemed to favour fungal diversity (cf. BÄRLOCHER and ROSSET, 1981; WOOD-EGGENSCHWILLER and BARLOCHER, 1983).
Single spore isolates of Anguillospora langissima (de Wild.) Ingold, Heliscus lugdunensis Saccardo et Therry and Tetraclacium marchalianum De Wild were obtained from decomposing leaf litter in the Bearn streams. In laboratory experiments, the degradation activity of each species was tested both on sterilized paper cellulose and white willow leaf litter. The cellutolytic activity of fungal cultures was significant when compared with controls (t test). After 5 weeks at 18 °C, mass loss was 8.6 % for A.longissima and 10.0 % for H.lugdunensis and T.marchalianum. Aeration stimulated cellulose degradation for T.marchalianum (16.6 %) only. With willow leaves as substrate, degradation was greater for T.marchalianum (22.7 %) than for N. lugdunensis (11.8 %) and A. longissima (6.2 %, non-significant).