Cette étude de laboratoire a eu pour but d'examiner la réactivité du bioxyde de chlore sur un acide humique d'origine aquatique en solution aqueuse et en milieu neutre (pH = 7,5) et de préciser en particulier l'incidence d'une préoxydation chimique au CIO2 sur les potentiels de formation de composés organohalogénés (trihalométhanes, acides dicloroacétique et trichloroacétique, chlore organiquement lié) et sur l'adsorbabilité du carbone organique sur charbon actif.
Les résultats obtenus montrent que radian du bioxyde de chlore sur racide humique Pinail à l'obscurité, conduit à des faibles abattements du carbone organique dissous (< 10 %) et de l'absorbance UV à 254 nm (de l'ordre de 30 %) et conduit à des productions potentiel es en composées organohalogénés très nettement inférieures à celles formées par chloration. De plus, une préoxydation chimique au bioxyde de chlore permet de diminuer d'une manière très significative la production de composés organohalogénés au cours d'une post-chloration et semble améliorer l'adsorbabllité du carbone organique sur charbon actif.
L'oxydation de l'acide humique par le bioxyde de chlore s'accompagne, par ailleurs, de la formation de chlorites (0,65 mg/mg de CIO2 consommé) qui peuvent ensuite être oxydés en chlorates au cours d'une post-chloration ou réduits en chlorures par un traitement au charbon actif.
Enfin, les résultats obtenus font apparaître que le mécanisme d'oxydation de composés organiques parle bioxyde de chlore en présence de la lumière ainsi que les interactions entre le bioxyde de chore, les chlorites, la matière organique et le charbon actif méritent d'être plus précisément étudiés.
- Bioxyde de chlore,
- acide humique aquatique,
- composés organohalogénés,
- charbon actif
Chlorine dioxide has drawn much recent attention as an alternative disinfectant and oxidant for drinking water to replace chlorine because of its powerful disinfecting ability and its limited capacity to produce organohalogenated compounds. However, the use of chlorine dioxide leads to chlorite (ClO2-) and chlorate (ClO3-) as inorganic oxidation by-products which are reported to have toxic effects on humans. The reactions of ClO2 with simple organic compounds (phenols, aliphatic and aromatic amines...) produce polar compounds such as quinone, ketones, aldehydes and carboxylic acids while oxydation by-products of dissolved organic matter of surface waters (in particular humic substances) are largely unknown. Consequently, the aim of this work was to obtain a better understanding of the effects of the use of chlorine dioxide in drinking water treatment To this end, experiments were carried out with dilute aqueous solutions of an isolated aquatic humic acid (Pinail humic acid, PHA) and the objectives of this present study were :- To evaluate the ClO2 demand and to determine the productions of chlorite, chlorate and of organohalogenated compounds such as trihalomethanes (THMs), dichloroacetic and trichloroacetic acids (DCA, TCA) which are the main organohalogenated products formed by chlorination.- To show the effects of chlorine dioxide preoxidation on organic halide formation potentials (postchlorination) and on the removal of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) by activated carbon. In addition, reactions of chlorite with chlorine or with activated carbon were also examined.
Pniail humic acid was dissolved in phosphate buffered ultra-pure water (pH = 7.5). Oxidation and adsorption experiments were carried out in headspace-free bottles, at 20 ± 1 °C and in the dark. Stock solutions of chlorine dioxide (4-6 g l-1) and of chlorine (6-10 g l-1) were prepared in the laboratory and titrated by iodometry. Residual chlorine dioxide concentration in PHA solutions was determined by spectrophotometric measurement at 360 nm and by two colorimetric methods : the chlorophenol red and the ACVK methods. Concentrations of DOC and of total organic chlorine or halogen (TOCI, TOX) were measured using a DOHRMANN DC 80 carbon analyser and a DOHRMANN DX 20 A TOX analyser equipped with a microcoulometric cell, respectively. THMs, DCA and TCA were determined by a gas chromatograph equipped with a 63 Ni electron capture detector after extraction by pentane for the THMs, and methylation in ether phase for DCA and TCA. Inorganic chlorine species were analysed by HPLC with a UV detector (ClO2-) or by chromatography (Cl-, ClO3-).
• Oxidation of PHA by ClO2
The results showed that PHA consumed about 2 mg of ClO2/mg of DOC after a reaction time of 24 hours (fig. 1) and that there is a rapid consumption of ClO2 during the first 30 minutes of the reaction (fig. 2) Oxidation by ClO2 had no effect on DOC concentration (DOC removal : < 10 %) and led to a significant decrease (about 30 %) of the UV-absorbance at 254 or 270 nm (fig. 1 and 2), and to productions of ClO2- (0,65 mg of ClO2-/mg of ClO2 consumed) which were independant of the applied oxidant dose and of the reaction time.
Furthermore, after a 72 hour reaction time in the dark, chlorine dioxide ([ClO2]0 = 5 mg l-1, [PHA]0 = 5 mg l-1, DOC = 2,6 mg l-1) produces very small amounts of chloroform (< 5 µg l-1), DCA (5 µg l-1) and TCA (5 µg l-1) and organochlorinated compounds (TOCl : 36 µg/mg DOC) compared to chlorine oxidation (tableau 1). However, in the presence of sunlight, ClO2 is rapidly photodecomposed (fig. 3) and the photodegradation products of ClO2 allow bromide oxidation (fig. 11) and lead to higher productions of organohalogenated compounds such as THMs (fig. 4).
• Chlorine dioxide preoxidation followed by chlorination
As shown in figure 5, chlorine dioxide preoxidation reduces the production of organohalogenated compounds and the chlorine demand during postchlorination. For a preoxidant dose corresponding to the ClO2 demand of PHA, the decrease in the formation potentials of CHCl3, DCA, TCA and TOCl was about 40-50 %. These results confirm the similarity of the action of chlorine dioxide and chlorine on aromatic structures which have high electron density carbons and which constitute probably the most reactive precursors of organohalogenated by-products.
As far as chlorite concentration is concerned, the results showed that chlorite formed during the preoxidation step was completely oxidized to chlorate during postchlorination, under the experimental conditions used in this study (chlorine dose : 40 mg l-1; contact time : 24 or 72 hours). Because of the reactions of chlorine eh chlorine and with residual chlorine dioxide, a small increase in the chlorine demand was observed when PHA solutions were heavily preoxidized (fig. 5).• Chlorine dioxide preoxidation followed by activated carbon treatment
Batch experiments were carried out with a powdered activated carbon (PAC, granulometry : < 80 µm) which was obtained by crushing a commercial granular activated carbon (CECA 40,12 x 40 mesh). Once equilibrium was achieved (contact time : 10 days), adsorption isotherms indicated that chlorine dioxide preoxidation increases the absorbability of DOC on activated carbon (fig; 4tableau 2). Furthermore, chlorite in oxidized PHA solutions was reduced by PAC to chloride. The capacity of CECA 40 activated carbon for ClO2- reduction to Cl- was about 170 mg ClO2-/g of PAC (fig. 7). Other experiments showed that chlorite may react with specific surface groups on PAC to produce inorganic carbon (fig. 7) and with PHA only in the presence of PAC as shown the DOC and UV-absorbance curves in figure 8 and the increase of TOX concentration in the liquid phase in figure 9. Thus the observed increase in DOC absorbability on PAC after a chlorine dioxide preoxidation may be attributed to cheminal interactions between PAC, chlorite, residual chlorine dioxide and adsorbed organic matter and requires further study.
- Chlorine dioxide,
- aquatic humic acid,
- organohalogenated compounds,
- activated carbon
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