This short article simply comments on sections 1, 2, 7 and 15 of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms : That is to say, on the interpretation, freedom of expression, due process and equality clauses. The author suggests some explanations of these texts.
Many provisions of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms enacted as part of the Constitution Act, 1982 are couched in very broad terms. Comparative law provides useful guide-lines for ascertaining the probable ambit of the Charter. This article centers on the European Convention on Human Rights and on part of its case-law in areas where comparable solutions are likely to obtain in Canada.
Thus, in spite of the generality of the words used by Deschênes J. in the case respecting minority language educational rights in Quebec, it is fair to assume that section 1 of the Canadian Charter will permit denials as well as limitations of rights, in exceptional circumstances, but that it will not apply to certain rights, such as the right not to be subjected to cruel treatment.
More generally, the European Convention lays down the exhaustive limits that can apply to some rights and one may assume that no more restrictions would be permissible in Canada either. Finally, examples are given of cases which have been decided by the European Commission or the European Court of Human Rights and which pose problems likely to be raised under the Canadian Charter.
The sale of motor véhicules is generally subject to a conventional warranty. Many sections of the Consumer Protection Act cover such warranties. This paper focus on the impact of the principal dispositions of the Act affecting conventional warranties in the sale of new or used automobiles and the main problems which arise therefrom.
As a result of the very wide use of conventional warranties offered by manufacturers and dealers, the Civil Code's provisions on legal warranty have, in the case of new and used cars sales, long been neglected.
The Consumer Protection Act has introduced, for the sale of new cars, legal standards of warranty regarding eviction and latent defects, standards which can in no way be diminished or excluded by the parties. The Act also prescribes a new set of warranties for the sale and repair of used cars. Today, the buyer is therefore entitled to the double protection offered by the Code and the Act.
Despite the fact that the right to information implies concomitant duties upon the information media, the dominiant opinion in international law is that this notion is synonymous with the well-known concept of « freedom of information ».
There appears to be a large consensus among all nations that the right to information is indeed a reformulation of the concept of freedom of information. However, despite some guarantees resulting from the Helsinki Agreements, attemps to specify the exact content of the notion of freedom of information have been unsuccessful at the international level.
In this article, the author describes the British system of Labour Tribunals. These Tribunals, which are composed of jurists and non-jurists have jurisdiction to hear claims dealing with unlawful dismissal, discriminatory practices and other such matters. Although the workload is impressive, there is easy access to the Tribunals and a flexible procedure is used. An appeal on questions of law is provided for from those Tribunals to the Employment Appeal Tribunal, which is composed of one judge and two non-jurists. The author has acted as chairman of the Employment Appeal Tribunal and is clearly in favor of such a mixed composition. The article describes the decision-making process of the Appeal Tribunal and its powers.
The surrogate family is a key element in the government's efforts to publicize social services in Quebec and to make them a matter of collective responsability. The following article reviews laws and practices related to the existence and use of the surrogate family over the past years.
On April 11, 1980, the U.N. Diplomatic Conference held in Vienna approved the Convention on contracts for the International Sale of Goods. This paper deals with the most interesting aspects of the Convention, comparing them with the rules of the Civil Code and the Draft Civil Code of Quebec on this matter.
The provisions of this international uniform law are quite close to the rules and remedies existing in civil law juridictions. The major differences between the Convention and the Quebec Law are more technical than substantial.
The differences between the uniform law and the national law can also be explained by particular circumstances of international trade which require more celerity and security in the field of international business transactions.
Scholarly writings may be considered as one of the sources of the law of Québec. A minor source compared, for instance, to the decisions of the courts, but nevertheless a source. The following paper is an unpretentious attempt to quantify rather than qualify Québec legal writers' contributions to such source as regards civil law only. It takes into account treatises, monographies including unpublished thesis, and articles.
Comme le titre le suggère, l'auteur analyse la signification et les implications de « illégalement » et « unlawfully » dans les versions française et anglaise du Code criminel du Canada, ce qui l'amène à mettre en doute la justesse du terme français. Il soutient qu'une traduction fidèle de « unlawfully » en français serait « sans autorisation légitime », et il poursuit en discutant des implications éthiques du terme dans le contexte de la législation canadienne sur l'avortement telle qu'était avant sa révision en 1969 et de son rôle possible dans la législation sur l'avortement.
Pour soutenir son argument, il recourt à l'Offences Against the Person Act britannique de 1861 et à l'affaire célèbre de Rex v. Bourne (1938), et à la manière dont ceux-ci furent appliqués dans les pratiques légale et médicale canadienne.
Finalement, l'auteur concentre son attention sur la supériorité du langage éthique au langage socio-économique ou médical dans une législation sur l'avortement, et il souscrit à une législation sur l'avortement exprimée en termes éthiques.