Upper Pleistocene deposits from 21 localities in Maryland, Virginia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and northern Florida yielded 77 ostracode species; virtually all are living today in brackish and marine water. Five late Pleistocene ostracode biofacies signifying lagoonal, oyster bank, estuarine, open sound, and inner sublittoral environments were delineated using Principal Coordinate Analysis. During the late Pleistocene, the Lagoonal and Oyster Bank Biofacies predominated in the Chesapeake Bay area, whereas east-central North Carolina was characterized by an Open Sound Biofacies similar to that in Pamlico Sound today. The Inner Sublittoral Biofacies was present in southeastern Virginia and along the South Carolina coast. The Estuarine Biofacies was found only in the Chesapeake Bay region. Paleoclimates were inferred by a comparison of Holocene and late Pleistocene ostracode zoogeography; apparently the climate during the late Pleistocene was as warm as, and in some areas warmer than at the same latitudes today. Ostracode species are illustrated by scanning electron photomicrographs Cyprideis margarita, Neocaudites atlan-tica, and Microcytherura norfolkensis are described as new species.
Three pollen diagram from the Sainte-Agathe region, at about 80 km north of Montréal, have been made to reconstruct the vegetational and climatic environment related to the Saint-Narcisse episode. The pollen sequences date back to more than 10 800 years before present. The vegetation history begins by an open vegetation phase, comparable to the present-day tundra, until about 9 750 BP. The afforestation phase is represented by an open aspen parkland (Populus tremuloides), from about 10 800 to 8 600 years BP. The following forest phase was first marked by the immigration of the boreal conifer forest elements, gradually replaced by deciduous trees of the present-day sugar maple (Acer saccharum) domain. The radiocarbon dates on the three cores invalidate the age of 8500 BP previously proposed for the tundra phase at site Borne (RICHARD, 1977). This vegetation phase at the three surrounding sites would have an age of 10 170 BP at site Sav-I, and of more than 10 820 and 10 420 years BP at Sav-ll and Lac à Saint-Germain sites, respectively. An inorganic horizon within the organic sediments in two cores at Lac à Saint-Germain has been attributed to reworking of sediments, possibly by subaquatic sliding. Finally, the pollen diagrams do not register the climatic fluctuation to which many authors related the Saint-Narcisse episode.
At Aupaluk a marine limit of 148 m was attained as a result of the invasion of the coastal lowlands by the Iberville Sea. The marine invasion occurred in association with retreat of the Laurentide ice towards the west and southwest about 7350 years BP. Between the déglaciation and 5250 years BP the uplift was rapid (7.1 cm yr~'). From 5000 years onwards uplift has been relatively slow. The rate of emergence at the present day is not precisely known however. Four strandlines have been dated at 6000, 5700, 5000 and 1800 years BP. A 5000 year has already been recognised at several sites in the Canadian Arctic. In the Aupaluk area it is situated at 30 m above present mean sea level. Certain evidence from a river-bank exposure at about 30 m above sea level leads to discussion of whether a marine transgression may have occured 5600 years BP. Isotopic composition of the carbon and oxygen in shells, the variety of shell species found at each site, measures of their density of occurrence in each habitat, their growth rate and their length, suggest two fossil populations: one in the upper western part of the region between 90 and 120 m a.s.l. and one in the lower eastern part of the region between 9 and 70 m a.s.l. The differences between these two populations are more readily explained by changing conditions of salinity rather than by changes in hydro-climatic conditions.
Some aspects of the terminology concerning glacial phenomena had to be discussed
in a recent thesis about the French Massif Central (VEYRET, 1978). Following this
work, the present paper deals with the terms glacial cirque, drift, till, moraine,
drumlin, kame, esker, sandur and valley train, and rock glacier. The author's aim is
mainly to discuss the signification of these terms, first by recalling their former
signification, then by reviewing the most largely accepted definition from a very
wide bibliography. According to the various authors, many different interpretations
remain about the origins of these forms, and some of the questions studied here are
not yet solved. Moreover, this paper does not discuss the names of these forms and
accumulations nor suggest any new French terms to replace foreign words already used
in scientific literature.