Historic maps, remote imagery and field surveys reveal that a terraced sequence of four salt marshes has arisen on a decadal-centennial time-scale over a frontage of about 4 km at Northwick and Aust warths exposed to westerly to northerly winds on the east bank of the Severn Estuary, UK. Except for the youngest marsh, at present very immature, each marsh built up through differential sedimentation from a mudflat until the outer zone reached a critical steepness; at that point wave-attack caused erosion that led to the rapid landward retreat of a bold, laterally extensive, marsh-edge cliff. This observed behaviour is consistent with previous models of autocyclic marshes, but evidence suggests that the extrinsic factor of medium-scale changes in wind-wave climate constrained the particular timing of marsh responses.
Lime, or quicklime, is produced from carbonate sedimentary rocks like limestone. Lime is then used for a variety of purposes in building construction, agriculture, medicine, steel and paper-making. By the 19th century, manufacture of lime for mortar and plaster was a significant part of the economy in Saint John, New Brunswick, Canada. Amongst the many quarries and kilns, the Green Head operation was among the industry leaders. The Green Head quarry was probably used in the early 1700s or earlier. However, for many of its busiest years during the 1800s Joseph and Frank Armstrong operated the quarry. The Armstrong quarry was well known throughout the Maritimes and New England as a producer of a high quality product. Joseph Armstrong was referred to in contemporary newspaper stories as a pioneer in the New Brunswick lime industry. The Armstrong quarry ceased production in the early 20th century and the site on Green Head Island now preserves the last and perhaps best example of this once thriving industry.
A large Early Mesozoic quartz tholeiite dyke has been mapped discontinuously for 190 km in southern coastal Maine, USA. Including its type locality at Christmas Cove (South Bristol, Maine, USA), the dyke has features of a generally ENE strike; dip usually steep to the SSE but abruptly turning very shallow in short sections; and widths of 9 to 35 m. The dyke rock has a distinctive cross-columnar field appearance, and a subophitic to micro-porphyritic texture with abundant Ti-bearing augite, calcic plagioclase, scattered euhedral orthopyroxene phenocrysts, and coarse-grained glomerophyric clumps of augite with plagioclase. Several 40Ar/39Ar whole-rock dates for this and associated regional dykes are close to 201 Ma, in agreement with ages of other Early Mesozoic dykes and basalts of the Central Atlantic Magmatic Province (CAMP). The geographic position, age, whole-rock chemistry, and petrography indicate that the Christmas Cove Dyke is co-magmatic or contiguous with the Higganum-Holden Dyke of southern New England, which was a source for the Talcott Basalt of the Early Mesozoic Hartford rift basin. The dyke system is a 700-km long fissure source for the earliest rift basin basalts preserved in northeastern North America, and it virtually connects the Hartford Basin and the Fundy Basin in Atlantic Canada. The Caraquet Dyke of New Brunswick and central Maine may be co-magmatic with the Buttress Dyke and Holyoke Basalt of southern New England, but lava from it is not preserved in Atlantic Canada or Maine.
Thick conglomerate-dominated sedimentary successions of the Horton and lower Windsor groups in the southern Isle Madame area show provenance variations with stratigraphic position, based on pebble counts, petrographic observations, and facies trends throughout the conglomeratic units. These coarse clastic sediments were deposited in a transtensional basin that formed south of a splay of the Minas Fault Zone, now repeated by younger faults in the study area. A stratigraphic section 1300 m thick that includes the base of the Horton Group was derived mostly, if not entirely, from units in the Avalonian Mira terrane to the east. Similar provenance indications continue stratigraphically upward in this section and elsewhere on Isle Madame through the thick lower and central parts of the Horton Group. In the upper part of the Horton Group, an influx of high-grade metamorphic and deformed plutonic clasts is recorded in the conglomerates, and the percentage of this material continues to increase above a dark fine-grained interval and into the overlying Windsor Group. The metamorphic clasts strongly resemble local basement rocksexposed as belts between conglomeratic domains in Isle Madame, indicating that these deeper crustal rocks were unroofed within the former basin in the late Tournaisian, resulting in redirected drainage patterns. Paleocurrent and facies information suggest that the Mira terrane sources were located to the northwest at the time of deposition. Hence, paleogeographic reconstruction for the area involves not only unroofing of the deeper crustal rocks, but also dextral transcurrent movement to place the appropriate parts of the Mira terrane at the northwestern corner of exposed parts of the basin. This movement was along a subsequently deformed part of the Minas Fault Zone.
A till composition study was carried out around the Sisson W-Mo deposit, New Brunswick, Canada, one of the largest W deposits in the world, to test modern analytical methods for W in till and document glacial dispersal from a significant W source. The <0.063 mm fraction of till defines glacial dispersal down ice of the deposit and use of this fraction is recommended for W-Mo exploration in the region. Metal-rich till overlying the deposit contains up to 816 ppm W and 63 ppm Mo. One km down ice, till contains 75 ppm W and 8 ppm Mo, and till in background areas contains a maximum of 7 ppm W, and 2 ppm Mo. Indicator elements for the deposit include W and Mo, and pathfinder elements include Ag, As, Bi, Cd, Cu, In, Pb, Te, and Zn. This list of elements is more extensive than previously identified for the Sisson deposit or identified in other published till geochemical studies because of the polymetallic nature of the Sisson deposit and the broad suite of elements that can now be determined using modern analytical techniques. Lithium meta/tetraborate fusion inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry was used to determine the total concentration of W in till and is a fast and cost effective method as compared to those reported in the older literature. Glacial dispersal of W and Mo from the Sisson deposit is detectable at a regional scale at least 14 km down ice (southeast) using surface till sampling. A 2 km till sample spacing should be sufficient to detect glacial dispersal from a W-Mo deposit of this size.
The Rye Complex of coastal New Hampshire and Maine is a peri-Gondwanan terrrane that up to now had an uncertain origin. An offshore portion of the complex, Appledore Island of the Isles of Shoals, hosts a mainly dioritic intrusion that yielded an U-Pb zircon age of 361.09 ± 0.14 Ma, allowing comparison of its geochemical characteristics with mafic rocks of similar age across the northern Appalachian orogen. The Appledore Island diorite has similar major, trace, and isotopic compositions as continental rift tholeiite in the Narragansett Basin in southern New England and in the Maritimes Basin of Canada. These intraplate volcanic rocks range from 375 to 330 Ma, bracketing the age of the Appledore Island diorite. Their intraplate tectonic setting reflects regional extension during the Late Devonian to Early Carboniferous which produced successor basins after the Acadian orogeny. The geochemical and age similarities of the Appledore Island diorite and the mafic rocks of the successor basins suggest that the Rye Complex is a basement fragment of a successor basin block. Further evidence of the identity of the Rye Complex is provided by the isotopic composition of intermingled, comagmatic granitic rocks associated with the Appledore Island diorite. The granite has a Ganderian isotopic signature, suggesting that the Rye Complex is a Ganderian basement block that was transposed by movement along the Norumbega Fault System to its position adjacent to the Merrimack Trough of New Hampshire and Maine.
The Beaver Harbour Porphyry is a high-level intermediate to felsic granitoid and locally tuffaceous unit with quartz and less abundant feldspar phenocrysts. It forms a fault-bound sliver along the southern margin of the New River belt in southern New Brunswick. A concordant TIMS U-Pb (zircon) age of 551 ± 1.2 Ma shows that the porphyry is of the same age as other high-level plutonic and volcanic units that form most of the New River belt. Chemical data show that these units likely formed in a volcanic-arc environment at an active continental margin. One sample from the porphyry has ƐNd(t) of -0.5, within the range of other samples from the New River belt and consistent with the interpretation that the belt is part of Ganderia, rather than Avalonia, which generally has more juvenile isotopic signatures.
A taxonomic revision of lycopsids is presented as part of a reassesment of lower to middle Westphalian adpression floras from the Maritime Provinces of Canada. Being elements of the swamp flora their record reflects sedimentary bias. Systematic collecting from the “Fern Ledges” at Saint John (New Brunswick) has yielded only a few lycopsid remains as a result of the allochthonous facies. Most records (mainly by W.A. Bell in the twentieth century) correspond to sporadic collecting by Geological Survey of Canada (GSC) personnel. Their specimens are kept in GSC Ottawa. Additional remains are in museums at Montréal (Quebec), Joggins (Nova Scotia) and Saint John (New Brunswick). We introduce a new species (Lepidodendron bellii), and reinstate another (Diaphorodendron decurtatum) described by Dawson in the 19th century. Altogether, 26 taxa are described, including stem and branch remains as well as roots, leaves, strobili and sporophylls. Three specimens are illustrated from localities outside Canada so as to clarify specific characters. A copy of Lindley and Hutton’s illustration of the type of Lepidodendron dilatatum (here recorded as Bergeria dilatata) is figured in the context of a redefinition of the genus Bergeria for stem remains with false leaf scars. Problems surrounding the morphological interpretation of arborescent lycopsids of Pennsylvanian age are discussed, and the stratigraphic and paleogeographic distribution are recorded for the different taxa. The identity of the Pennsylvanian flora of the Canadian Maritimes with that of the British Isles and western Europe in general is emphasized by the synonymies discussed. Paleogeographic proximity and a similar paleolatitude justify the identity of floras.
The Turner Mountain syenite is one of the few plutons located entirely within the Norumbega fault system in the northern Appalachian orogen. It is composed of texturally and mineralogically homogeneous biotite-amphibole syenite and is in faulted contact with mylonitic leucogranite and an unmetamorphosed redbed unit. It is intermediate in SiO2 content (58.7–65.1 wt%) and ultrapotassic (6.4–7.9 wt% K2O) with high K2O/Na2O ratios (2.75–4.15), yet is relatively primitive in terms of MgO (2.8–4.9 wt%), Ni (average 90.2 ppm), and Cr (average 210.1 ppm) contents. It has enriched large-ion-lithophile elements relative to high field strength elements, high contents of light rare-earth elements, and initial 87Sr/86Sr ratios (0.7038–0.7068) similar to that of OIB basalts. It differs petrologically and geochemically from the neighboring Lucerne-Deblois plutons but is similar to Lincoln syenite located 100 km to the southwest, also within the Norumbega system. Zircon U-Pb dating using LA-ICP-MS yields a weighted mean age of 410.5 ± 2.4 Ma, slightly younger than the Lincoln syenite (418 ± 1 Ma). Based on their distinctive geochemical signatures, both were probably products of Late Silurian-Early Devonian ultrapotassic magmatism related to Acadian subduction, generated by partial melting of a mantle wedge metasomatized by potassium-rich fluids during west-directed subduction. This unique magmatism could be attributed to decompressional melting during Late Silurian-Early Devonian slab break-off or delamination. Based on Sr-Nd isotopic compositions, the Turner Mountain syenite magma probably had more crustal interaction than that which formed the Lincoln syenite. The syenite was later exhumed tectonically during brittle reactivation of the Norumbega fault. The reactivation involved regional-scale, high-angle, southeast-over-northwest reverse faulting in a transpressional environment and occurred during the Late Devonian and through Mississippian to Permian.
This is the first detailed study of the coastal exposure of the Springhill Mines Formation within the Joggins Fossil Cliffs World Heritage Site. A 16.9-m-thick interval of dark laminated mudrocks and sharpbased sandstones at the base of our section is reassigned to the top of the Joggins Formation. This interval records a rapid, presumably widespread flooding event and the temporary establishment of a marginalmarine to brackish bay. The overlying 697 m of strata represent deposition in poorly drained and well-drained environments, and are assigned to the Springhill Mines Formation. Strata reflecting poorly drained environments contain green and grey mudrocks, thin coals, sheet sandstones, and channel bodies interpreted to have been deposited in coastal swamps and low-lying parts of a floodplain. Intervals reflecting well-drained conditions contain reddish brown mudrocks, sheet sandstones, and channel bodies interpreted to have been deposited on a vegetated floodplain that was periodically exposed to oxidizing conditions. Strata reflecting poorly drained conditions are thick and abundant in the lower half of the formation and well-drained intervals become thick and more abundant in the upper half. The shift in facies abundance is accompanied by an interpreted evolution in fluvial style from predominantly anastomosed channels (below 376 m) to sheet-like channel bodies (376–449 m) and ultimately to predominantly meandering-channel bodies (449–697 m). The formation-scale changes in drainage conditions and fluvial style records decreased halokinetic subsidence and aggradation of the alluvial surface as sediments shed from the Caledonia Highlands prograded into this part of the basin.
The mid-Paleozoic Scyphocrinites Zenker has a distal attachment modified into a globular flotation structure and, uniquely for a crinoid, joined the obligate plankton. Such a flotation structure has been found in the Indian Point Formation (Pridolian to Lochkovian) of Flatlands, northern New Brunswick. It is most likely Pridolian (Upper Silurian) based on the primitive morphology. This identification is confirmed by the globular gross morphology, multi-plated calcite structure, age and similarity to coeval fossils from Cornwall, southwestern England.