Alberta Journal of Educational Research

Editor(s): Anna Kirova


The Alberta Journal of Educational Research (AJER) is a scholarly quarterly journal, published in Canada, that is devoted to the dissemination, interpretation, critique, and support of all forms of scholarly inquiry into education, broadly construed, and the fields associated with education both locally and globally.



845 Education South
Faculty of Education
University of Alberta
Edmonton AB T6G 2G5

Principal Contact

Dr. Anna Kirova, Editor

University of Alberta

Support Contact

Leah Spencer


AJER is published in online format on the Open Journal Systems (OJS) platform.

(no printed issues)

Note: Subscriptions are for a 1-year period of online access to the entire AJER site (all current issues and archives).  Subscriptions can start at any point during the year.

Back issues (1 issue)

Permanent archiving of articles on Érudit is provided by Portico.

Editorial policy and ethics

About the Journal

Journal History

For almost 60 years, the Alberta Journal of Educational Research (AJER) has been published by the Faculty of Education, University of Alberta, as a peer-reviewed journal for the dissemination of educational research findings, and as a forum for the discussion of issues in education. When publication began in 1955, the focus of the journal was primarily the Province of Alberta. Then, as now, a purpose of AJER was to apprise Alberta school teachers and administrators of current educational research and trends in educational policy. AJER is the oldest active Canadian scholarly educational journal.

Peer Review Process

The Editor conducts an initial review for appropriateness, length, rigour, and structure. Suitable manuscripts are then subject to a double-blind review process. The review process involves no less than two reviewers, but usually entails three and sometimes four reviewers.

Abstracts are sent to members of our Review Board, who either indicate a willingness to review specific submissions, or they suggest names of scholars they believe would be appropriate reviewers. Names of graduate students well along in their programs are acceptable. Selection of the reviewers is made by the Editor based on the information received.

Upon receipt of the reviews, the Editor makes a decision based on the reviewers’ recommendations and comments. Authors are then informed of the decision. In the case of an initiation to "revise and resubmit", one or two of the original reviewers is solicited to undertake a subsequent review.


Publication Frequency

The Alberta Journal of Educational Research publishes quarterly. A volume includes four issues - Spring, Summer, Fall, and Winter.


Delayed Open Access

The contents of this journal will be available in an open access format 12 month(s) after an issue is published.

Effective 1 April 2017: The contents of this journal will be available in an open access format 12 month(s) after an issue is published.



This journal utilizes the LOCKSS system to create a distributed archiving system among participating libraries and permits those libraries to create permanent archives of the journal for purposes of preservation and restoration. More...


Terms & Conditions of Usage - Effective 1 April 2017

Access to articles published in the online version of the current volume and previous volume of the Alberta Journal of Educational Research (AJER) is limited to institutions and individuals with a subscription (a "subscriber"). Articles published in the online version of AJER previous to the above referenced volumes are available to anyone, without need for a subscription ("other users").

By subscribing to, and/or accessing AJER Online (hereinafter called the "Journal") you agree to be bound by the following terms and conditions of this Agreement.

1. Copyright

The copyright in the Journal, including abstracts, is owned by the Governors of the University of Alberta, represented by the Faculty of Education at the University of Alberta (the "Journal Publisher"). Copyright notices in the Journal may not be removed, obscured, or modified in any way. Unauthorized copying or redistribution of the Journal content is a violation of copyright laws.

All subscribers and other users acknowledge that they have no claim to any rights in the Journal or its contents by reason of their use of or access to the Journal, except as expressly permitted herein.

2. The Licences

Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement and upon payment of the annual subscription fee, the Journal Publisher grants to a subscriber for a one-year period a non-transferable licence for access to all materials included in the online version of the Journal, including the volumes of the Journal for the one current year of publication.

Subject to the terms and conditions of this Agreement, the Journal Publisher grants to all other users a license for access to all materials included in the Journal, but not including the volumes of the Journal for the one current year of publication.

3. Terms of access and use

Subject to the form of license granted:

  1. access for subscribers and other users will be to the full database of the Journal, including: tables of contents, abstracts, full text and graphics of all articles, including multi-media adjuncts, where appropriate and available;
  2. Individual subscribers will have access to the Journal through a user ID and password;
  3. Institutional subscribers' access to the Journal shall be controlled through the use of Internet Protocol (IP) addresses or domain names. Institutional subscribers are responsible for ensuring that the Journal Publisher has been supplied with the name and email address of the institution’s primary contact and valid IP addresses. The Journal is to be notified of changes within 30 days;
  4. An institutional subscriber may authorize any of its employees, faculty, staff, students or onsite users to access and use the Journal in the same manner in which the institution as subscriber is entitled to do;
  5. Any subscriber or other user may search, retrieve, save, download and print out copies of individual articles or other items from the database of the Journal for their scholarly, educational, research or personal use.

All rights not expressly granted herein are reserved to the Journal Publisher, and for greater clarity:

  1. Items from the Journal may not be copied or distributed for commercial advantage, nor can any fees or charges be made in connection with such items;
  2. Material from the Journal may not be translated, altered, re-compiled, manipulated or used to prepare derivative works, or published in any other format in any medium without written permission from the Journal Publisher;
  3. Author's names, copyright notices, or any other means of identification must not be removed or altered from how they appear in the Journal;
  4. Items from the online Journal database may not be mounted or distributed on any electronic network, including without limitation the Internet and the World Wide Web without written permission from the Journal Publisher;
  5. Activities that may burden the Journal Publisher's server are not allowed (e.g., automatic download of content by robots, spiders, crawlers, wanderers, accelerators, etc.)
  6. Recompiling, publication or republication of the articles from the Journal, or any portion thereof, in any form or medium whatsoever, are not permitted without written permission from the Journal Publisher.

4. Unauthorized usage

Any subscriber or other user shall promptly notify the Journal Publisher of any known infringements of copyright in relation to the Journal, or any other such unauthorized activity, of which it becomes aware.

Institutional subscribers and institutional other users and shall take reasonable steps to prevent or to cease any unauthorized activity by any member of that institution of they become aware, and to prevent any recurrence thereof.

An individual subscriber is responsible for maintaining security over, and controlling use of, the individual’s access, including user ID and password.

5. Disclaimers

The Journal Publisher:

  1. does not warrant the accuracy or completeness of any information contained in the Journal, nor the availability of access to the Journal continuously, or at any given time;
  2. will have no liability to any person for any loss or damage arising out of use of, or inability to use or access the Journal;
  3. reserves the right to modify the terms of this Agreement immediately by providing notice online and directly to institutions by electronic and conventional mail. Continued use of the Journal for more than 30 days after such notice shall constitute acceptance of such modification;
  4. reserves the right to raise the annual subscription fee by giving at least three months notice prior to the next renewal date. The fee for each year the subscription is renewed must be paid on or before the renewal date.
  5. The opinions, claims, and conclusions expressed in the articles published in the The Alberta Journal of Educational Research (AJER) are those of the authors. They do not necessarily reflect the views or opinions of AJER, its editors, its reviewers, the University of Alberta, its administration, or Board of Governors. The research and theories presented in these articles are solely the claims of the contributing author(s). AJER assumes no responsibility for damages arising from the use or misuse of information contained in these articles.

6. Duration of the Agreement

This Agreement becomes effective upon a subscriber completing a subscription request, or upon a user accessing the Journal, and does not terminate.

Access to the Journal will terminate, or be terminated as follows:

  1. At the end of a paid subscription period if the subscription is not renewed. Subscribers who don’t renew will still have access to the Volumes they subscribed to and to the Journal archives;
  2. Upon a breach of this Agreement that has been uncorrected within thirty (30) days of the Journal Publisher sending notice that the alleged breach has occurred, and in the discretion of the Journal Publisher. No refund will be provided to a subscriber upon such termination;
  3. Access will be suspended immediately upon detection of a breach of this Agreement that affects the Journal Publisher's servers and/or the access of others. The Journal Publisher will use reasonable efforts to notify the subscriber or other user by email as soon as possible. If not corrected, the user's or subscriber’s access will not be reinstated and no refund will be provided to such subscriber;
  4. Following notice from a subscriber or other user not accepting changes to the Agreement. A refund for the remaining subscription period will be sent to any such subscriber.

If you have any questions regarding this Agreement or the use of AJER online, please contact us by email or by phone.

Updated: 15 February 2017


Privacy Policy

AJER is committed to protecting user privacy online. We will not disclose individually-identifiable information about a user to any third party without the express permission of the user, unless required to by government or other law enforcement authority.

AJER may link to independently run web sites outside of the domain. We take no responsibility for the content or the privacy practices of such web sites.

AJER uses Google Analytics to track statistical information about the numbers of visitors to the site. To do this Google Analytics sets first party cookies on each visitor’s computer. This is used to store anonymous information. We do not collect any information though our traffic logging that allows us to personally identify users.

This policy may be updated from time to time. If significant changes are made, a notice will be posted on the home page of the website.


Please refer to the APA 7th edition style manual for more information about plagiarism, including self-plagiarism.

Information for contributors

Author Guidelines

Articles submitted to the Alberta Journal of Educational Research (AJER) should address the dissemination, interpretation, critique, and support of all forms of scholarly inquiry into education, broadly construed, and the fields associated with education both locally and globally.

Submission of a manuscript to AJER implies, and is an undertaking on the part of the author(s), that neither the manuscript nor any substantially similar manuscript has been published, is in press, or is under consideration elsewhere. This is a condition for publication in AJER. Prior to publication, authors will assign their copyright to AJER by means of a standard form.

AJER does not charge a fee for publication of an author's article. However, a submitted article may go through a rigorous peer reviewer process. Submitting to AJER is an investment of time, not money.

Prior to being considered for suitability for peer review, all articles submitted will be assessed for adherence to our submission guidelines, including adherence to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association, 7th ed., and scanned for matching text. Authors are encouraged to have articles professionally copyedited for APA, as well as scanned with text-matching software, such as “Turnitin” or “Grammarly”, prior to submission.

If a submission's topic is considered to fit the mandate of the journal, the Editor will send the manuscript for a set of outside peer reviews. The reviews are then studied by the Editor who will decide to either accept the manuscript, reject the manuscript, or request revisions, which may or may not go out for a second set of peer reviews. The time this takes depends on many things—most importantly the schedules of the editor and the reviewers.

Please submit your manuscript electronically as a Microsoft Word or Rich Text Format (RTF) document through the submission feature of this website.

Submissions can be made at any time (there are no deadlines). Graduate student submissions will be considered. If an article is accepted, it will be published in the next regular issue that has space.

Note: AJER has three email IDs that you may receive emails from:

ajer @
ajer.editor @ (remove spaces from around @ sign on all)
ajer.asst @

Please whitelist these or put them in your contacts list.

Guidelines for Contributors of Articles

Please supply 5 keywords that describe the main subjects discussed in your manuscript (in the online submission, and below the abstract in the manuscript). If the article goes to review, the keywords are used to help find reviewers. If the article is published, the keywords are used on this site to make it easier for readers to find your article in a search.


Please refer to Chapter 2 of the APA 7th edition style manual concerning paper elements and format. (See also: Use a standard typeface and size such as Times New Roman 12 pt. and double space throughout (including block quotations, references, notes, etc.). Manuscripts are not to exceed 8,000 words excluding references. Please indicate the word count on the first page of the manuscript document.

Include everything to do with the manuscript itself in one document. At the beginning include the title, authors with affiliations, word count, an abstract of approximately 100 words, and a list of 5 keywords describing the main subjects discussed in your manuscript. Place all tables and figures at the end of the document (see more notes on tables/figures below).


Please send the complete manuscript (i.e., not masked or anonymized in any way). The submission will be anonymized at AJER prior to being sent for review.


AJER's editorial style conforms to the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (7th ed., more information here: Manuscripts that do not conform will be returned for adjustment. For spelling, please consult Webster's New Collegiate Dictionary. Spelling in quoted material must remain as in the original.


Please refer to Chapter 8 of the APA 7th edition style manual concerning works credited in the text. (See also: Sources cited appear in parentheses after each reference (direct or otherwise), giving author's name (unless mentioned in text), year of publication, and page number(s) in the case of direct quotes. Enclose quotes of 39 or fewer words in double quotation marks in the text; indent quotes of 40 or more words in block format. Page numbers must be given.

List all sources alphabetically at the end of the manuscript under the heading "References" using APA style (version as shown in Style section above). With regard to DOIs and Hyperlinks, please follow APA 7th Section 9.35: (See also: APA suggests that when DOIs are available, you include them for both print and electronic sources. Please refer to pp. 298-300 of the APA 7th edition style manual for more information. (See also:

Once DOIs and/or hyperlinks have been placed in your article, test the links to make sure there are no typos and the links work.

To follow/resolve a DOI number—try doi> The DOI® System or CrossRef

To find a DOI number—try the CrossRef Free DOI Lookup

Footnotes and Endnotes:

Footnotes are not allowed. The use of endnotes is discouraged; however, necessary brief explanatory notes, numbered consecutively and marked in the text with superscript numerals, may appear after the References under the heading Notes. Citations in notes follow the same format as other references. Please refer to pages 40-41 of the APA 7th edition style manual concerning the presentation of footnotes.

Tables, Figures, Photos, etc:

Number tables and figures with Arabic numerals and place at the end of the manuscript, after references and appendices. (i.e., all in one document). Please refer to Chapter 7 of the APA 7th edition style manual concerning the presentation of tables and figures. A checklist for tables and figures can be found on p. 207. (See also:

Editorial board

Editorial Team


Anna Kirova, University of Alberta, Canada

Book Review Editor

Jonathan David Anuik, University of Alberta, Canada


Yvonne Norton, University of Alberta, Canada

Copy Editors

Danielle E. Lorenz, University of Alberta, Canada

Editorial Assistant

Leah Kathleen Armontrout Spencer, University of Alberta, Canada


Dorine Chalifoux, Canada

Review Board

James Anderson, University of British Columbia
Jonathan Anuik, University of Alberta
Marlene Atleo, University of Manitoba
Oksana Babenko, University of Alberta
Abraham Barouch Gilbert, Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo—UFES (Brazil)
Nadine Bartlett, University of Manitoba
Tanya Beran, University of Calgary
Pam Bishop, University of Western Ontario
Susan M. Brigham, Mount Saint Vincent University
Katie Brubacher, University of Alberta
Dawn Burleigh, University of Lethbridge
Charalambos Charalambous, University of Cyprus
Lorenzo Cherubini, Brock University
Man Wai Chu, University of Calgary
Maria Cutumisu, University of Alberta
Susan Drake, Brock University
William Dunn, University of Alberta
Joseph Engemann, Brock University
Richard Enns, University of Calgary
Claudia Eppert, University of Alberta
Amy Farrell, University of Manitoba
Alexandra Fidyk, University of Alberta
Rita Gardiner, Western University
David Geelan, University of Notre Dame Australia
George Georgiou, University of Alberta
Hartej Gill, University of British Columbia
Douglas Gleddie, University of Alberta
Shibao Guo, University of Calgary
Erika Hasebe-Ludt, University of Lethbridge
Roumiana Ilieva, Simon Fraser University
Steven Khan, Brock University
Mijung Kim, University of Alberta
Kim Koh, University of Calgary
Sandra G. (Sandie) Kouritzin, University of Manitoba
Megan Laverty, Columbia University
Joseph Levitan, McGill University
Xin Ma, University of Kentucky
Janelle McFeetors, University of Alberta
Angus McMurtry, University of Ottawa
Richard E. (Mort) Morehouse, Viterbo University
Francine Morin, University of Manitoba
Paul Newton, University of Saskatchewan
Wendy S. Nielsen, University of Wollongong
Joe Norris, Brock University
Greg Ogilvie, University of Lethbridge
Mike Parr, Nipissing University
Sharon Pelech, University of Lethbridge
Erin Peters-Burton, George Mason University
Cheryl Poth, University of Alberta
Larry Prochner, University of Alberta
Robert Renaud, University of Manitoba
Carlo Ricci, Nipissing University
Hetty Roessingh, University of Calgary
Toni Samek, University of Alberta
Nancy Spencer, University of Alberta
Erin Spring, University of Calgary
Lisa Son, Barnard College
Evelyn Steinhauer, University of Alberta
Lauren Sulz, University of Alberta
Jo Towers, University of Calgary
Jessica Van Vliet, University of Alberta
Bonnie Watt, University of Alberta
Lynne Wiltse, University of Alberta
Jing Xiao, University of Saskatchewan
Jonathan (Jon) Young, University of Manitoba
Christina Wai Mui Yu, Hong Kong Institute of Education