Propped by Norway's diplomatic breakthrough in getting Israel and the PLO to forego their protracted state of war and negotiate their way toward a peaceful coexistence, this study focuses on small state mediation. It is an intellectual endeavor to shed light on a small state intervening as a third party mediator in some conflict-ridden international disputes. Because of the normative and legalistic approach that has dominated the study of international relations for quite some time, it is not surprising that the process of mediation can be difficult to grasp or, at least, subject to misunderstanding.
Highlighting the small state mediation paradigm, the essay sets out Us background and offers an interpretative analysis of Us value. It addresses a number of questions pertaining to this avenue for international conflict management. For instance, where does international mediation fit within the larger spectrum of international peace mechanisms ? What are the distinguishing features of a small state's style of intervention, and how does a small state mediation differ from other mediatory schemes such as those intiated by other actors ? Most importantly, where does a small state's wherewithal to bring about a peaceful settlement of an international dispute stem from ? These and other questions are carefully probed in an attempt to grasp the dynamic of small state mediation.
Coalition theory has developed outside the field of international relations in the wake of game theory, in laboratory experiments, and in the study of government coalitions. Four parameters can be used to predict the formation and development of coalitions : the benefits sought by the players, the resources at their disposal, the non-utilitarian linkages between them, and the decision threshold to be reached. In the field of international relations, many studies have dealt with coalitions, alignments, and interstate alliances. They can be grouped into three schools of thought. First, there is the economic school where States are seen as seeking to maximize the benefits they gain from working together. Second, there is the power relationship school, with States forging alliances mainly for self-protection from external military threats. Finally, there is the structural school, less developed than the two other ones, which is based on the affinities, rivalries, or neutralities between States. The effects of alliances, in particular military ones, have been much debated. Some authors claim they are a factor for stability in the international System ; others claim the opposite. The research note concludes by suggesting there is a need to develop a truly political theory of alliances, one that could integrate theories more economic or sociological in nature.
This article focuses on the reorientation of the Canadian development assistance policy during the 1980's to foster the emergence of a North-South partnership in which the business community would be a key actor. It is questionable whether the funding levels and geographical priorities of telecommunication projects undertaken by the Canadian private sector through CIDA'S Industrial Cooperation Program may lead to such a partnership. Sectorial allocations, albeit still sparse, reveal a selective marginalization of Third World Economies, as they are concentrated on a few Latin American and Asian middle-income countries.
The maintenance of international peace and security is the primary purpose of the United Nations and the effective function of the ICJ is obviously to contribute to it. Now that 50years have passed since the foundation of this Court and while the Bosnian case is pending, the question of the effectiveness of its judicial function inevitably arises: in practice, it often suffers from the lack of political will of the sovereign States. But thanks to its contribution to the development of international law, the ICJ indirectly plays an effective role in the cause of world peace : it exercises a function of "normative supply", implied and derived from the primary function of the principal judicial organ of the United Nations.