Multilateral free trade has taken on increasing global importance with the passage of such agreements as the NAFTA, the EU, the GATT, and the recent transformation of the latter into the WTO. The underlying principle of each is progressive trade liberalization in all fields of economic activity, including those which are more prone to protectionist forces such as agriculture, financial services, and foreign direct investment. In aiming to promote progressive trade liberalization, the GATT, the NAFTA and the EU contain rules designed to guard against wrongful trade practices, for example an exporter "dumping" cheap products in a foreign market. This paper critically examines the degree to which these agreements reach their objective, and concludes that although they facilitate the removal of trade restrictions and other barriers, they do not go far enough in a number of specific areas. Examples are provided.
This study tests Conger-Kanungo hypothesis that employee empowerment can help build a strong positive attitude among subordinates. The findings on Iranian executives and managers point to the conclusion that encouraging employee participation, setting motivational goals, removing bureaucratic barriers and rewarding performance lead towards building a loyal workforce.
Korea has become the object of growing international interest among scholars and practitioners because of its remarkable economic achievement in the past three decades. However, the relationship between corporate management practice and Korean cultural values has received only limited attention. This paper claims that studying espoused values and beliefs of firms should be the first step to understanding the impact of national culture on management practices. The paper first outlines several important aspects of Korean culture and them examines their impact on management values and beliefs. Next, it analyzes the contents of the management values and beliefs by examining two organizational symbols--company motto and company song. Finally, the paper discusses how management values and beliefs impact on human resource management policies and practices. The paper concludes that the Korean core cultural values of harmony, unity, and vertical social relations strongly influence Korean firms, and that these management values and beliefs play a profound role in shaping human resource practices.
This paper develops and tests a model of the determinants of productivity in twenty computerized offices of the Internal Revenue Service. The results suggest first, that management's focus on machine monitoring statistics is misguided; second, that performance feedback has a significant effect on productivity; and third, that job experience plays a central role in productivity even in entry-level positions.