This study reports the results of a survey of managers of NYSE-listed firms whose stocks became listed on one or more of the following exchanges - London's International Stock Exchange (ISE), Frankfurt Stock Exchange (FSE), and Tokyo Stock Exchange (TSE). The results show much similarity between the motives of NYSE firms for listing on these three exchanges. The key motives include increasing visibility, broadening the shareholder base, and gaining access to financial markets. Most respondents perceive few initial barriers to listing on the ISE and FSE, but the situation differs on the TSE. Respondents saw cost and disclosure requirements as initial barriers, but they decided to list their firms' stock anyway.
The term human rights in employment is commonly used to refer to the rights of minorities to be treated fairly and with justice. The term, however, rightfully encompasses a broader range of issues. There is in fact a very strong international consensus that, in addition to protection against discrimination in employment, young children should not be permitted to engage in exploitative forms of work and employees everywhere should enjoy freedom from forced labour, freedom of association, and the right to bargain collectively. Action designed to thwart the enjoyment of these standards are human rights violations.
The term "human rights violation" most often comes up in the context of discussions about conditions in some of the world's poorer nations but the rights of workers in the supposedly advanced countries are far from sacrosanct.
Although it attracts little adverse attention, the North American employment practice of union avoidance sabotages the right to bargain collectively and thus is morally wrong. It should not be practised by business and it should not be taught in business schools. From a human rights perspective the practice of union avoidance is the moral equivalent of forced labour, child labour and overt discrimination.
If you are sceptical, I can understand. When this notion first occurred to me my reaction was to reject it. Over the years, however, I became a convert to the extent that in 1997 I helped found an organization dedicated to promoting awareness and compliance with core labour rights as human rights. Let me review with you the tortuous road that I travelled to get to this point.
Historically in Thai society 'work' has been defined broadly but recent economic changes have led to a narrowing of ideas about what constitutes work. The commodification of labour this entails is familiar from the history of economic change in many nations. This article seeks to go beyond re-stating the obvious parallels. In particular, because the specificities of these changes in each nation reveal underpinning attitudes to work, we believe that they have significance for understanding worker attitudes and therefore for decision making on both labour policy and management practice.
Some Thais defining work will recite a 1950's slogan introduced by the military dictator Sarit that states 'ngan khu ngern, ngern khu ngan, banda suk', which means work is money, money is work and this brings us happiness. This article seeks an understanding of what this means in practice. It begins by looking generally at broad concepts of work and economic development. It then considers how this has impacted on language and normative values in other nations, and looks at how economic change in Thailand has led to a profound shift in attitudes to work. In particular attention is focused on the language used to describe work because this language is redolent of the process of cultural legitimisation by which working for money becomes normative. The article uses both Thai and Isarn (the name given to the dialect and region in Northeast Thailand) illustrations to show usage change in both urban and rural areas.
More and more of the developing countries are seeking membership in the World Trade Organization. One of the consequences of WTO membership is the necessity of competing with the "best-in-class" companies in the international marketplace. Unfortunately, many developing countries are plagued by archaic bureaucracies, which constitute a major impediment to competitiveness, at a time when it is crucial for developing countries to create a vibrant private sector in order to assimilate the large numbers of new entrants into the workforce. This paper attempts to identify the causes of bureaucracy and the ways by which organizations can de-bureaucratize. Although intense competition is by far the best prescription for de-bureaucratizing, other strategies must also be pursued simultaneously. The economies that will prosper in the future are the ones that will be able to re-invent themselves periodically, something that bureaucratic societies find difficult to do.