Since their inception, the failure rate of customer relationship management (CRM) projects continues to be high. Using the "Miles and Snow" (1978) strategic typology, this paper advances a contingency framework to explain the failure rates and to better predict the success of CRM projects. The strategic typology perspective allows for the integration of firm strategic orientation, environmental factors, and customer characteristics for the development of a broad framework for understanding CRM success and failure. Several propositions are advanced for how internal and external factors can affect the success of CRM initiatives.
The purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of problem solving and cognitive restructuring approaches in improving the creativity motivation of management trainees through enhancing their individual creative behaviour. A 3 x 2 factorial design was adopted in this study. The sample of study consisted of 102 subjects randomly drawn from a stratum of management trainees undergoing Masters Program in Business Administration in three Universities in Ibadan, Nigeria. Three validated instruments were used for data collection before and after therapy. Analysis of covariance and t – test statistics were used to test the generated hypotheses at 0.05 level of significance. The results obtained showed that both the creative problem-solving and cognitive restructuring techniques were effective in improving management trainees’ creative behaviour and consequently raising their level of creativity motivation. However, creative problem-solving technique was found to be significantly more effective than cognitive restructuring technique in raising subjects’ creativity motivation. The findings also indicated that the intervention strategies were effective in raising the creativity motivation of both Type A and Type B personality subjects. However, while problem-solving technique was more effective for Type B personality subjects, cognitive restructuring technique was found to have more effect in raising the level of creativity motivation of Type A subjects. Based on the outcome of the study, managers and researchers wishing to foster motivation for creativity in the organizations can do so, not only by paying attention to work environments that enhance creativity motivation, but also by trying to improve the creative behaviour of individuals at work using these or similar intervention measures.
The Maghrebian community is becoming the most important and the fastest growing ethnic group in Quebec, Canada. Despite their obvious assets such as a high level of education and sound experience, its members still face the greatest difficulties finding a convenient job. No wonder Maghrebian immigrants are among the poorest of the province according to informal statistics by the community leaders. To overcome this "social disadvantage", many Maghrebian immigrants choose to start a business; other alternatives being going back home, moving to another Canadian province or even another country, and applying for the government social welfare program. The major aim of this exploratory paper is to identif the most important conditions under which Maghrebian entrepreneurs start their businesses in Quebec.
While African-American and Asian-American entrepreneurs are the subject of several studies on ethnic entrepreneurship, Latino immigrant entrepreneurs are relatively neglected. Previous research shows that non-immigrant ethnic minorities tend to earn more as employees than as entrepreneurs, but the reverse is true for many immigrants. Despite the fact that immigrants from Latin American to the United States have shown a propensity to become self-employed and hold skills that often lead to success in the entrepreneurial market, their income as entrepreneurs is lower than other ethnic groups. This study shows that most of this disparity is linked to languagability. If they are bilingual in Spanish and English with strong English skills, Latino immigrants to America, like other immigrant groups, earn more on average as entrepreneurs than as employees.
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