Anthropological theory has always been subject to the encounter with important
social movements. The social radicalization in the seventies led to the emergence of a
Marxist inspired anthropology, then to a feminist anthropology. Presently the rise of
indigenous movements is accompanied by the elaboration of increase in auto-ethnography, by
members of an educated native youth. Each in its own way, these three trends all contribute
to a critique of anthropology.
This paper is a review of the scientific literature on teenage pregnancy in aboriginal communities in Canada. Statistics show that aboriginal people are particularly concerned with this situation. A literature review of it was conducted from three large databases. First, we present an overview of the situation exploring the issue and the risk factors. Although teenage pregnancy can be a positive experience, research indicates that teenage pregnancy generally has long-term negative effects on the well-being of the mother, the child and the community. The literature review documents the various risk factors such as poverty, early sexual activity and use of drug and alcohol. Secondly, we present a critical analysis of three different research approaches in the literature: cultural access to health services and sociohistorical.
The article is based on a one-year ethnographic fieldwork with the members of the Washaw Sibi Eeyou Association, an incorporated community organization counting about 600 members scattered in Northern Quebec and Ontario and currently affiliated with different aboriginal bands. The body of the text highlights the main periods of the history of the group and shows how the contemporary situation of the group is due to members’ semi-nomadic practices, a specific experience of colonialism, recent changes in the national context of aboriginal and state relations, and members’ actions to mobilize into a single collectivity. I will approach social change with a focus on the concept of emergence, which undermines the assumptions of coherence and predictability, and emphasizes the mechanisms, problems, and triggers that contributed to both the fragmentation and cohesion of the group.
The first International Congress of Americanists, held in Nancy in 1875, was the scene of a violent quarrel between Léon de Rosny, a positivist philologist, with Émile Petitot, Oblate missionary of the Congregation of Mary Immaculate. The stakes were many: if the defining of the criteria of legitimate knowledge was the main objective of the conference organizers, proponents of Christian doctrine came to defend it against the polygenism of the emerging science of anthropology, that is, the claim to the Adamic unity of the human race and the Asian origin of Native Americans. However, it is during the discussion of an allegedly Iroquois manuscript that suddenly was crystallized the challenges of a quarrel tied to the origin and authenticity of a Native American writing: the inadequacy of the scholarship acquired by the philologist in the library was then joined by the blindness resulting from the proselytizing relationship the missionary had established with the Indians. The article concludes with the restoration of historical truth: the manuscript was actually Mi’gmaq.
For many decades, First Nations Peoples have been subjects of choice for filmmakers who presented themselves as mediators of a culture that has been portrayed through an external point of view. However, indigenous peoples have recently taken the means to assume responsibility for their representation, creating films that show the rebirth of their culture, through a revitalization of ancestral knowledge and through the creation of a new audiovisual community coming together around the film process. This article attempts to demonstrate how, within films like Before Tomorrow (2008) and Atanarjuat (2001) the white mediator becomes himself an « absent third party », his presence being tacitly suggested within the diegesis, as well as through the appropriation of a foreign medium. It is also shown how indigenous movies and their participants present themselves as transmitters of memory, through the relation that is built between film and spectators during screenings that occur in their communities.
This paper describes and analyses the introduction of reindeer herding in Amadjuak, on Baffin Island, in 1921. The operation involved several Saami families and Inuit, hired at the last moment to help the Saami and take over reindeer herding. But the operation resulted in a failure and all the reindeer died, many of them eaten by wolves and dogs. Using archival sources – and more particularly the journal of the Hudson’s Bay Company agent – as well as oral sources, the authors evoke the reasons explaining this dramatic experience. They emphasize the difficulty of transforming hunters into herders, these two activities being connected with quite different perspectives of the relationships between human beings and animals. Finally they stress the fact that among Inuit, the caribou is often associated with the deceased and with spirits (ijirait), a connection that is never made with respect to the reindeer imported by the qallunaat.
This research note provides a rereading of the Jesuit Relations to learn more about the Nipissiriniens tribe after the contact period with Europeans. The first Jesuit informant was Jean Nicollet, who lived for a decade with the tribe during the years 1620-1630. Later, the Jesuits founded a mission and periodically related the successes and failures of their enterprise until the 1660’s. In conclusion, the author briefly describes the current situation of the descendants of the seventeenth century Nipissiriniens.
In Mexico as in the rest of Latin America, native territories are presently coveted
by extractive industries and hydroelectric projects. In the field, anthropologists find
themselves involved in intense debates regarding these projects. A new form of ethnography
is on the way, where the scholar is being asked as many questions as he asks the members of