A vapid one-man, beach profiling method is presented. The scheme ie based upon a 1.5 x l.S-m H-shaped frame and uses the earth's horizon as a level. A small correction must be applied to readings to correct for the Earth's curvature. Measurement error in the method decreases with increased packing of sediment but is independent of grain size. Profiles plotted using this scheme are replicable and similar in slope and shape to ones surveyed using instrument levelling.
Changes in sediment texture and in foraminiferal and molluscan assemblages observed in three vibraaores collected in Miromichi Tnner Boy reflect the development of a barrier island system across the mouth of the Bayt and the opening and closing of channels between the islands. The barrier island system apparently developed initially between 4400 and 3600 C14 years B.P. Opening and infilling of Buckleberry Gulley during the past 1300 years is indicated by changes in the proportions of estuarine and open bay assemblages of henthanic foraminifera. Mollusc and fora-minifera data do not always suggest the same paleoenvironmental conditions at any given place and time, but they are in good agreement with respect to the direction of paleoenvironmental trends.
A variety of bottom dwellers and some aspects of their interaction with habitat, as in lebensspuren, and with other animals are seen in photographs of the floor of Hudson Bay. The influence of ice-rafting on sediment type and distribution is depicted.
Exponential decrease in grain size with linear distance of sediment transport is expressed as a variation of Sternberg's Law. This variation is Y = Y0e-ax in which Y0 is the initial diameter of a particle, Y is the diameter of the particle after Travelling a distance X, and a is the slope of the curve. This slope was designated the coefficient of size reduction by Sternberg, Determination of paleoslope attitude, and paleocurrent direction, and sedimentary anisotropy were achieved from the field measurements on vectoral properties of foreset beds and current ripples, and from the examination of sedimentologic-stratigraphic maps such as grain size distribution, isopachs, and facies.
The basic equation (Y = Y0E -ax) is applied to grain diameters of sediment samples from Arctic rivers, thus representing sedimentation on the modern temporal plane. Next, the mathematical operations carried out on both scalar and vectoral entities are applied to the upper and lower parts of a Silurian member (the Grimeby Sandstone in the Niagara Peninsula) of Ontario, in order to illustrate the persistence of the exponential law through a small interval of geologic time. Superposition of the size-distance curves representing top and bottom beds show parallelism of slope. The operations applied across two members (the Grimsby and overlying Thovold sandstone) show a similar parallelism of size-distance curves. The operations applied across several formations representing almost an entire geologic period (the Triassic sandstones of northeastern British Columbia - Toad, Liard, and Grey Beds) yield a family of negative, exponential, size-distance curves, drawn from the textural analyses. Finally, the operations are applied to formations representing a long interval of geologic time (the conglomerates of the lower Mississippian Pocono and lower Pennsylvanian pottsville). Size-distance curves based on textural variations along a sampling line trending northwesterly across Pennsylvania were constructed and superposed on the same graph. The resulting relationship demonstrates that under prograding conditions a natural law of growth for sedimentary clastic bodies exists and persists over long periods, being expressed in the form of a family of negative exponential curves. Also, this law together with sedimentary anisotropy and progradation constitute a sedimentologic continuum operating through this different but successive interval of geologic time.