Present relations between the leadership teams of the Governments of Quebec and Ottawa may be interpreted by applying the axioms of communication pragmatics as formulated by Paul Watzlawick and his associates in drawing upon the ideas of Gregory Bateson. These axioms and other strategie considerations provide the basis for a game theory of politics that is itself applied to the debates between the leadership teams of Ottawa and those of Quebec. In the game theory of politics, primary concern is focused on tactical possibilities rather than on the usefulness of outcomes. Herein lies the relevancy of the idea of strategie move which has been introduced and developed by Schelling in order to render the theory of games more appropriate for the study of concrete situations.
This article depicts the configuration of approaches to the scientific study of foreign policy and international politics in Canada, as represented in a systematic survey of research written in Canada and published in forty scholarly journals, some from as early as 1945 up to 1975. Scientific studies found in this sample were analyzed along four dimensions : theoretical basis ; issue area ; units upon which the investigation is based ; and method of analysis. Scientific study of international relations emerged as a largely recent yet growing phenomenon of the last decade. It constitutes a unique subfield outside the mainstream of research, and is concentrated among a relatively small group of individuals and even fewer institutions. Études internationales emerged as the single most important channel of communication for this subfield in Canada
The concept of a new international economic order remains ambiguous not only in the sphere of economies, which has already been demonstrated, but also from a juridical point of view. To further explore the latter aspect, the author considers the principal texts treating the new international economic order and seeks to identify the juridical bases thereof. Three main trends emerge : the first propounds a very absolutist conception of sovereignty, the second invokes the world government model, and the third, claiming middle ground between the previous two, aims toward a regrouping of individual sovereignties within collective structures better able to safeguard common interests. But it is still too early to say which of these approaches will hold away. For the moment, the current legal order obtains with, at the very most, some adjustments.
The achievement of scientific socialism as conceived by MM. Ch. Bettelheim, J. Charrière and H. Marchisio is based on four general principles, namely : the taking of power by proletarian party ; the establishment of the dictatorship of the proletariat ; the public ownership and control of the economy ; and agricultural reform. Relating the experience of Benin to these fundamental principles shows that there are different paths to socialism. Accordingly, the accumulation of different facts leads to a revision of the theory of scientific socialism.