International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning

Volume 22, Number 4, November 2021

Table of contents (12 articles)


  1. Editorial - Volume 22, Issue 4

Research Articles

  1. Online Learning and Students’ Fear of COVID-19: Study in Malaysia and Pakistan
  2. A Construct Revalidation of the Community of Inquiry Survey: Empirical Evidence for a General Factor Under a Bifactor Structure
  3. Exploring Open and Distance Learning Reform at the National University of Lesotho: A Managerial Perspective
  4. “I Don’t Know if I Can Handle It All”: Students’ Affect During Remote Education in the COVID-19 Pandemic in Brazil
  5. The Tensions Between Student Dropout and Flexibility in Learning Design: The Voices of Professors in Open Online Higher Education
  6. University Students’ Persistence With Technology-Mediated Distance Education: A Response to COVID-19 and Beyond in Zimbabwe
  7. Developing Institutional Open Educational Resource Repositories in Vietnam: Opportunities and Challenges
  8. How Are We Doing with Open Education Practice Initiatives? Applying an Institutional Self-Assessment Tool in Five Higher Education Institutions

Book Notes

  1. 25 Years of Ed Tech

Technical Notes

  1. Open For All: The OERu’s Next Generation Digital Learning Ecosystem

Literature Reviews

  1. What We Talk About When We Talk About Virtual Learning Environments


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