Réduction du modèle ASM 1 pour la commande optimale des petites stations d'épuration à boues activées
B. Chachuat, N. Roche and M. A. Latifi
L'adoption par l'Union Européenne de normes de rejets plus contraignantes implique une meilleure gestion des stations d'épuration. L'utilisation de modèles de simulation dynamique dans des schémas de commande en boucle fermée constitue une alternative intéressante pour répondre à ce problème.
Sur la base du modèle ASM 1, un modèle réduit est ici élaboré pour le procédé à boues activées en aération séquentielle, en vue de la commande optimale du système d'aération. Les simplifications considérées sont de deux types : (i) les dynamiques lentes du système sont identifiées au moyen d'une méthode d'homotopie, puis éliminées du modèle ; (ii) des simplifications plus heuristiques consistant à prendre en compte un composé organique unique et à éliminer la concentration des composés organiques azotés sont ensuite appliquées. Elles conduisent à un modèle simplifié de 5 variables. L'application d'une procédure d'identification paramétrique permet alors de démontrer que le comportement dynamique du modèle simplifié est en bonne adéquation avec celui du modèle ASM 1 sur un horizon de prédiction de plusieurs heures, même lorsque les concentrations de l'influent ne sont pas connues. Il est également vérifié que le modèle proposé est observable et structurellement identifiable, sous des conditions d'aérobiose et d'anoxie, à partir des mesures en ligne des concentrations en oxygène dissous, ammoniaque et nitrate.
Le modèle simplifié développé présente ainsi toutes les propriétés requises pour une future utilisation au sein de schémas de commande en boucle fermée, en vue de la commande optimale des petites stations d'épuration à boues activées.
In order to meet the stricter wastewater effluent guidelines adopted by the European Union, wastewater treatment plants require better management strategies. Wastewater treatment process models have become a major tool to design closed-loop control schemes. However, the dynamic models that are currently used in the simulation of activated sludge treatment plants (ASM 1, ASM 2 and, more recently, ASM 3 models) are highly dimensional and are not appropriate for on-line implementation (e.g., for model predictive control or optimal control). It is therefore important to develop reduced models that could be used for this purpose.
A reduced model was developed to describe the behaviour of alternating activated sludge treatment plants, with the aim of applying it to the optimal control of an aeration system. The reduction scheme was based on appropriate simplifications to the ASM 1 model (which is more appropriate for open-loop control). The objective was to verify if accurate predictions could be made time periods of several hours (about 8 h).
The present results are related to an existing small-size wastewater treatment plant. This plant was designed for 15,000 population-equivalents (p.e.) and consists of a primary treatment stage (screening, grit removal, primary sedimentation), followed by a secondary treatment stage (biological treatment). The latter consists of a single aeration tank of about 2,050 m3 equipped with 3 turbines which are operated cyclically to create alternating aerobic and anoxic conditions. Ammonia is converted into nitrate during air-on periods (nitrification step) and nitrate is subsequently removed during air-off periods (denitrification step). It is important to note that a dynamic model, based on the ASM 1 model and calibrated from a set of input/output measurements over a one-day period (Chachuat, 2001), was used here as a reference to perform model reduction.
The following two-level simplification procedure was applied :
· A homotopy method was first used to establish relationships between the states and the dynamics of the system, via an eigenvalue decomposition. The components that are associated with the slowest dynamics are then assumed constant to reduce the state space dimension. Heterotrophic (XB,H) and autotrophic (XB,A) biomass and inert particulate organic compounds (XI) were detected as the slow state variables. It was found that the short-term predictions of the dynamic model were not affected by assuming that XI, XB,H and XB,A concentrations were constant. Eliminating these 3 state variables, along with the concentrations of soluble inert organic compounds (SI), resulted in a 7-dimensional dynamic model.
· However, further simplifications were required to enable the on-line optimisation of the bioreactor aeration profiles with reasonable computational times. These simplifications consisted of taking into account the process specifications in order to reduce the state space dimension to 4 or 5, and were therefore based on more heuristic considerations. Both organic and nitrogenous compounds are under consideration: (i) a single organic compound (denoted as XDCO) is formed by adding soluble and particulate organic compound concentrations, and (ii) the mathematical expression that describes the organic nitrogen hydrolysis process is simplified so that the dynamics with respect to soluble and particulate organic nitrogen are independent.
The two previous simplification steps produced a reduced 5-dimensional dynamic model with state variables XDCO, SNO, SNH, SND and SO. It should also be noted that the resulting model involved the parameters YH, iNBM, KS, KNO, KO,H, KNH,A, ηNO,g and ηNO,h that are identical to those defined in the original ASM 1 model by Henze et al. (1987). In addition, 7 specific parameters were defined defined (θ1, θ2, θ3, θ4, θ5, KDCO, KND). These new parameters exhibited rather slow temporal variation, thus agreeing with the general ASM 1 model for short time periods.
Afterwards, a two-step procedure was applied to calibrate the model. This procedure first consisted of determining a reduced set of identifiable parameters by the use of both sensitivity and principal component analyses. Note that the inlet concentrations of organic compounds, ammonia nitrogen and soluble organic nitrogen may be considered as additional parameters since they are generally not measured on-line. The selected parameters (θ1, θ2, θ3) and inlet concentrations (XinDCO, SinNH) were then estimated by the application of a local gradient search method (successive quadratic programming, SQP). Comparisons between the dynamic behaviour of both reduced and ASM 1 models show that accurate predictions can be obtained over time periods of several hours (8 h). It was also shown that the reduced model was observable and structurally identifiable under aerobic and anoxic conditions from dissolved oxygen, ammonia and nitrate concentration measurements. These results therefore demonstrate the ability of the reduced model to be embedded into closed-loop control schemes.
The conclusions from this work are twofold: (i) The reduced model can be used as a basis to construct an on-line observer to estimate the unmeasured state variables, the unknown (most sensitive) parameters and inlet concentrations; (ii) Non-linear model predictive control (NMPC) schemes can then be implemented to operate the aeration system so that the nitrogen discharge or the energy consumption are minimised (optimal control).
The initial results demonstrate that the application of NMPC strategies is likely to give large reductions of nitrogen discharge with respect to usual operating strategies (e.g., oxygen or redox control). Such closed-loop control schemes are particularly efficient in dealing with large influent variations (inlet flow rate, concentration and composition) resulting from both human activities and climatic conditions, and inherent modelling uncertainties. However, an experimental validation of this control strategy on a pilot scale or an industrial scale is required to confirm these results.
A. St-Hilaire, T. B.M.J. Ouarda, M. Lachance, B. Bobée, M. Barbet and P. Bruneau
L'estimation de l'intensité de précipitations extrêmes est un sujet de recherche en pleine expansion. Nous présentons ici une synthèse des travaux de recherche sur l'analyse régionale des précipitations. Les principales étapes de l'analyse régionale revues sont les méthodes d'établissement de régions homogènes, la sélection de fonctions de distributions régionales et l'ajustement des paramètres de ces fonctions.
De nombreux travaux sur l'analyse régionale des précipitations s'inspirent de l'approche développée en régionalisation des crues. Les méthodes de types indice de crues ont été utilisées par plusieurs auteurs. Les régions homogènes établies peuvent être contiguës ou non-contiguës. L'analyse multivariée a été utilisée pour déterminer plusieurs régions homogènes au Canada. L'adéquation des sites à l'intérieur d'une région homogène a souvent été validée par une application des L-moments, bien que d'autres tests d'homogénéité aient aussi été utilisés.
La loi générale des valeurs extrêmes (GEV) est celle qui a le plus souvent été utilisée dans l'analyse régionale des précipitations. D'autres travaux ont porté sur la loi des valeurs extrêmes à deux composantes (TCEV), de même que sur des applications des séries partielles.
Peu de travaux ont porté sur les relations intensité durée dans un contexte régional, ni sur les variations saisonnières des paramètres régionaux. Finalement, les recherches ont débuté sur l'application des concepts d'invariance d'échelle et de loi d'échelle. Ces travaux sont jugés prometteurs.
Research on the estimation of extreme precipitation events is currently expanding. This field of research is of great importance in hydraulic engineering not only for the design of dams and dikes, but also for municipal engineering designs. In many cases, local data are scarce. In this context, regionalization methods are very useful tools. This paper summarizes the most recent work on the regionalization of precipitation. Steps normally included in any regionalization work are the delineation of homogenous regions, selection a regional probability distribution function and fitting the parameters.
Methods to determine homogenous regions are first reviewed. A great deal of work on precipitation was inspired by methods developed for regional flow analysis, especially the index flood approach. Homogenous regions can be contiguous, but in many cases they are not. The region of influence approach, commonly used in hydrological studies, has not been often applied to precipitation data. Homogenous regions can be established using multivariate statistical approaches such as Principal Component Analysis or Factorial Analysis. These approaches have been used in a number of regions in Canada. Sites within a homogenous region may be tested for their appropriateness by calculating local statistics such as the coefficient of variation, coefficient of skewness and kurtosis, and by comparing these statistics to the regional statistics. Another common approach is the use of L-moments. L-moments are linear combinations of ordered statistics and hence are not as sensitive to outliers as conventional moments. Other homogeneity tests have also been used. They include a Chi-squared test on all regional quantiles associated with a given non-exceedance probability, and a Smirnoff test used to validate the inclusion of a station in the homogenous region.
Secondly, we review the distributions and fitting methods used in regionalization of precipitation. The most popular distribution function used is the General Extreme Value (GEV) distribution. This distribution has been recommended for precipitation frequency analysis in the United Kingdom. For regional analysis, the GEV is preferred to the Gumbel distribution, which is often used for site-specific frequency analysis of precipitation extremes. L-moments are also often used to calculate the parameters of the GEV distribution. Some applications of the Two-Component Extreme Value (TCEV) distribution also exist. The TCEV has mostly been used to alleviate the concerns over some of the theoretical and practical restrictions of the GEV.
Applications of the Partial Duration Series or Peak-Over-Threshold (POT) approach are also described. In the POT approach, events with a magnitude exceeding a certain threshold are considered in the analysis. The occurrence of such exceedances is modelled as a Poisson process. One of the drawbacks of this method is that it is sometimes necessary to select a relatively high threshold in order to comply with the assumption that observations are independent and identically distributed (i.i.d.). The use of a re-parameterised Generalised Pareto distribution has also been suggested by some researchers.
Research on depth-duration relations on a regional scale is also discussed. Empirical approaches used in Canada and elsewhere are described. In most cases, the method consists of establishing a non-linear relationship between a quantile associated with a given duration and its return period to a reference quantile, such as a 1-hour rainfall with a 10-year return period. Depth duration relationships cannot be applied uniformly across Canada for events with durations exceeding two hours. Seasonal variability studies in regionalization are relatively scarce, but are required because of the obvious seasonality of precipitation. In many cases, seasonal regimes may lead to different regionalization approaches for the wet and the dry season. Some research has focused on the use of periodic functions to model regional parameters. Another approach consists of converting the occurrence data of a given event in an angular measurement and developing seasonal indices based on this angular measurement.
Other promising avenues of research include the scaling approach. The debate over the possibility of scale invariance for precipitation is ongoing. Simple scaling was studied on a number of precipitation data, but the fact that intermittence is common in precipitation regimes and the presence of numerous zero values in the series does not readily lead to proper application of this approach. Recent research has shown that multiple scaling is likely a more promising avenue.
Effet du débit sur la dynamique temporelle des algues périphytiques dans une rivière influencée par les activités agricoles
I. Lavoie, F. V. Warwick, P. Reinhard and J. Painchaud
Le périphyton de la rivière Boyer Nord, une rivière affectée par les activités agricoles dans le sud du Québec (Canada), a été échantillonné toutes les deux semaines de la mi-mai à la fin septembre 1999 afin d'évaluer son évolution temporelle et d'identifier les variables potentielles qui le contrôlent. Les résultats montrent la grande variabilité temporelle de la biomasse périphytique (poids sec organique et chlorophylle a) et de la structure de la communauté de diatomées. La communauté d'algues benthiques dans la rivière Boyer était principalement composée de diatomées (Nitzschia, Cocconeis, Cymbella, Cyclotella), d'algues vertes (Scenedesmus, Pediastrum, Cosmarium, Closterium) et de cyanobactéries (Phormidium, Oscillatoria, Merismopedia). La pointe de débit observée durant la semaine précédant l'échantillonnage était fortement corrélée à plusieurs variables physico-chimiques (N-total, NH3-N, NO3-N, P-total, turbidité) et était le plus fortement corrélée aux changements temporels de la biomasse. La biomasse (chlorophylle a et poids sec organique) était négativement corrélée au phosphore total, ce qui reflète la relation avec le débit. Les changements temporels dans la composition spécifique des diatomées étaient régis par différentes variables physico-chimiques, selon les limites de tolérances et la valence écologique des espèces. Les algues périphytiques de cette communauté ont réagi aux variations de l'environnement à l'intérieur d'une période de 2 semaines puisque des changements majeurs dans la structure de l'assemblage de diatomées ont été observés lors de chaque échantillonnage. Ces observations montrent la forte variabilité de la biomasse et de la structure de la communauté périphytique dans les rivières enrichies par les éléments nutritifs et souligne l'influence majeure du débit dans ce type d'environnement.
Periphyton in an agriculturally enriched river (Boyer River, Québec, Canada) was sampled from mid-May to the end of September 1999 to evaluate the temporal succession of periphyton and to identify potential controlling variables. The river is located on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River and discharges into it approximately 30 kilometres downstream (east) of Québec City. Land-use in the Boyer River watershed is 60% farmland and 40% forests. The site was chosen for its intense farming, accessibility and proximity to an automatic sampling station for water quality operated by the Québec Ministry of the Environment that continuously recorded pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and discharge. Event water samples were collected for nutrients, turbidity, conductivity and suspended solids according to discharge. Periphyton growth was scraped every two weeks from rocks over a 10 meter reach, between mid-May and the end of September using a template, blade and toothbrush. Samples for chlorophyll a (Chl a) and ash-free-dry-weight (AFDW) were filtered on to Whatman GF/C glass fiber filters the same day and additional samples were preserved with paraformaldehyde-glutaraldehyde for taxonomic analysis. Chl a was extracted in 95% ethanol and quantified by spectrophotometry. AFDW was determined by drying the samples for 24 hours at 80ºC followed by combustion in a muffle furnace at 500ºC for 2 hours. Samples for diatom analysis were cleaned using a mixture of 1:1 sulphuric and nitric acid at 60°C and mounted on slides with Naphrax mounting medium. Diatoms were then identified and counted with a Zeiss Axiovert 10 inverted microscope at 1000X magnification. A minimum of 400 valves were enumerated for each sample. The presence of other algal constituents was also determined. Statistical analyses included Pearson correlations, stepwise regression analysis and analysis of variance.
The chemical and physical properties of the river fluctuated substantially during the sampling season. Nutrient levels were consistently high with total N in the range of 1,2-7,2 mg/l and total P in the range of 0,07-0,37 mg/l, confirming the strong agricultural enrichment of the Boyer River. All measured nitrogen components (total-N, NH3-N, NO3-N) showed a decreasing trend during the sampling season while soluble reactive phosphorus (SRP), total dissolved P, conductivity, pH and temperature showed a general increase over the season. Oxygen levels were often well above or below saturation (29-176% of air equilibrium) indicating a strong biological influence on oxygen dynamics.
Periphytic biomass (Chl a and AFDW) and diatom community structure showed major fluctuations over time. The temporal changes in biomass were most strongly correlated (negatively) with peak discharge during the preceding week (AFDW : r=-0,748, p < 0,05; and Chl a : r=-0,649, p < 0,05). This discharge variable was strongly correlated (positively) with several physico-chemical variables (total-N, NH3-N, NO3-N, total-P, turbidity). The negative correlation between biomass and total phosphorus suggested that algae in the Boyer River were not nutrient-limited. However, stepwise regressions showed that variations in diatom-specific composition over time were regulated by various physico-chemical variables linked to environmental preferences and tolerance of each species. Navicula seminulum, Navicula cf. subminusculus and Navicula saprophila were strongly influenced by the peak discharge during the week preceding the sampling (R2 =0,76, F(1,8) =25,7, p 0,001; R2 =0,66, F(1,8) =15,82, p < 0,05 and R2=0,55, F(1,8) =9,85, p < 0,05, respectively). Cymbella silesiaca, Cocconeis placentula, Cyclotella meneghiniana and Navicula saprophila were strongly correlated with temperature (R2 =0,58, F(1,8) =11,08, p < 0,05; R2 =0,61, F(1,8) =28,15, p 0,001; R2 =0,41, F(1,8) =5,65, p < 0,05 and R2 =0,59, F(1,8) =11,38, p < 0,005, respectively). Diatoma vulgaris was mostly influenced by suspended solids plus discharge (R2 =0,4, F(1,8) =5,38, p < 0,05; and R2 =0,86, F(1,7) =20,72, p < 0,005, respectively). The abundance of Navicula lanceolata was strongly correlated with conductivity (R2 =45, F(1,8) =6,55, p < 0,05) while that of Nitzschia spp. correlated with total dissolved phosphorus (R2 =49, F(1,8) =7,63, p < 0,05). No significant influence of the physico-chemical environment was observed on Navicula cryptocephala or Surirella brebissonii. Benthic algae in this nutrient-rich ecosystem responded to environmental variations within 2 weeks since major changes in community composition were observed between all sampling dates. Although diatom community structure changed markedly during the sampling season, most of the observed species are indicative of nutrient-enriched rivers and streams.
The results of this study show the dynamic nature of periphyton communities in nutrient-enriched rivers and streams and underscore the importance of discharge as a regulator of biomass. The rapid shifts in community structure also imply that benthic algae can be used as a sensitive measure of environmental conditions in agriculturally impacted ecosystems.
Estimation des niveaux d'inondation pour une crue éclair en milieu urbain : comparaison de deux modèles hydrodynamiques sur la crue de Nîmes d'octobre 1988
A. Paquier, J. M. Tanguy, S. Haider and B. Zhang
Lors des crues extrêmes en ville, une forte part des écoulements reste en surface. Pour simuler ces inondations, deux modèles sont présentés : le logiciel REM2 U unidimensionnel a pour objectif de simuler la propagation des débits de crue dans l'ensemble d'un réseau de rues alors que le logiciel Rubar 20 bidimensionnel vise à fournir plus d'information sur ces écoulements. Des calculs avec ces deux logiciels ont été menés sur la crue d'octobre 1988 dans un quartier de Nîmes. Lors de cet événement, les hauteurs d'eau maximales ont dépassé deux mètres en certains points et les vitesses 2 m/s ce qui entraînait des passages en régime torrentiel. A partir des données rassemblées sur les sections en travers des rues, des maillages de calcul limités au réseau de rues ont été construits pour les deux logiciels afin de permettre un calcul détaillé. La comparaison des résultats avec les laisses de crue montre des situations très contrastées d'un point à un autre pour une hauteur d'eau maximale moyenne sur l'ensemble de la zone inondée correctement simulée. L'écart sur cette hauteur est, en moyenne, de 1 m ce qui provient des incertitudes sur les observations, sur la topographie et sur les conditions aux limites, des approximations lors de la modélisation et de particularités locales non décrites. Entre les deux logiciels, l'évolution des hauteurs et des vitesses est généralement très proche bien que, comme pour la comparaison avec les laisses de crue, des différences locales importantes sont observées.
The hydraulic models that are used to simulate floods in rural areas are not adapted to model floods through urban areas, because of details that may deviate flows and create strong discontinuities in the water levels, and because of the possible water flow running in the sewage network. However, such modelling is strongly required because damage is often concentrated in urban areas. Thus, it is necessary to develop models specifically dedicated to such floods. In the southern part of France, rains may have a high intensity but floods generally last a few hours. During extreme events such as the October 1988 flood in the city of Nîmes, most of the flow remained on the ground with high water depths and high velocities, and the role of sewage network can be neglected. A 1-D model and a 2-D model were used to calculate such flows, which may become supercritical. On the catchments of the streams which cross the city of Nîmes, the rainfall was estimated as 80 mm in one hour and 250 mm in six hours in October 1988, although some uncertainties remain. The return period can be estimated between 150 and 250 years. The zone selected to test the models was an area 1.2 km long and less than 1 km wide in the north-eastern part of the city. It includes a southern part with a high density of houses. The slope from the North (upstream) to the South (downstream) was more than 1 % on average and was decreasing from North to South. Various topographical and hydrological data were obtained from the local Authorities. The basic data were composed of 258 cross sections of 69 streets with 11 to 19 points for each cross section. Observations of the limits of the flooded areas and of the peak water levels at more than 80 points can be used to validate the calculation results. The inputs consisted of two discharge hydrographs, estimated from a rainfall-discharge model from rains with a return period of 100 years, which may result in an underestimate of these inputs. These two hydrographs correspond to the two main structures that cross the railway embankment, which constitutes an impervious upstream boundary of the modelled area. Whereas the western and eastern boundaries are well delimitated by hills above maximum water levels, the downstream southern boundary is somewhat more questionable because of possibilities of backwater and inflows from neighbouring areas.
The 1-D software REM2U solved the Saint Venant equations on a meshed network. At crossroads, continuities of discharge and of water heads were set. The hydraulic jump was modelled by a numerical diffusion applied wherever high water levels were found. The Lax Wendroff numerical scheme was implemented. It included a prediction step and a correction step, which implied precise solving of these very unsteady and hyperbolic problems. The software was validated on numerous test cases (Al Mikdad, 2000) which proved the adaptation to problems of calculations in a network of streets.
The 2-D software Rubar 20 solves 2-D shallow water equations by an explicit second-order Van Leer type finite volume scheme on a computational grid made from triangles and quadrilaterals (Paquier, 1998). The discontinuities (hydraulic jumps for instance) are treated as ordinary points through the solving of Riemann problems. For the Nîmes case, the grid was built from the cross sections of the streets. Four grids were built with respectively 4, 5, 7 or 11 points for every cross section and these points correspond to the main characteristics of the cross section: the walls of the buildings, the sidewalks, the gutters and the middle point. The simplest crossroads were described from the crossings of the lines corresponding to these points, which provide respectively 16, 25, 49 or 121 computational cells. The space step was about 25 metres along the streets but went as low as 0.1 m in the crossroads; due to the explicit scheme, which implies that the Courant number was limited to 1, the time step was very small and a long computational time was required.
The computations were performed with a uniform Strickler coefficient of 40 m1/3/s. Both 1-D and 2-D models provided results that agreed well with observed water levels. The limits of the flooded area were also quite well simulated. However, locally, the differences between calculated and observed maximum water depths were high, resulting in an average deviation of about 1 metre. The reasons for such deviations could come from three main causes. First, the uncertainty of topographical data is relatively high, because of the interpolation between measured cross sections without a detailed complementary DEM (digital elevation model). Second, the observed levels were also uncertain and reveal local situations that are not reconstructed by the hydraulic models which provided maximum water levels averaged on one cell which may not coincide with the exact location of the observations. Finally, modelling means a simplification of the processes, which implies cancelling the level variations due to some obstacles, such as cars, which are not simple to identify.
In conclusion, both software packages can model a flood, even a flash flood, in an urbanised area. Research is still necessary to develop methods to fully use urban databases in order to define details more precisely. The improvements to the 1-D software should include a better modelling of storage and of crossroads with an integration of adapted relations for the head losses. 2-D software has a greater potential but the difficulty to build an optimal computational grid means a long computational time, which limits the use of such software to small areas. For both software packages, methods still need to be developed in order to represent exchanges with the sewage network, storage inside buildings and inputs directly coming from rainfall.
Simulation numérique de la sédimentation dans les retenues de barrages : cas de la retenue de Zardezas, Algérie
M. Bessenasse, A. Kettab, A. Paquier, G. Galeas and P. Ramez
La construction d'un modèle numérique destiné à prédire la formation et l'évolution de dépôts de sédiments à l'amont d'un barrage est présentée. A partir d'informations sur les apports en eau et en sédiments en provenance du bassin versant consolidées par une analyse hydrologique en QdF, un modèle hydraulique bidimensionnel horizontal couplant équations de Saint Venant et une équation de convection-diffusion est mis en œuvre. L'application de ce modèle sur la retenue de Zardezas de la région de Skikda (Algérie) montre, à la fois, les difficultés pratiques rencontrées dans la mise en œuvre et l'apport possible d'une telle méthode pour la gestion des retenues algériennes.
Sedimentation rates are often very high in Algeria, reaching about 1% of the reservoir volume per year in most cases. The management of existing reservoirs and the choice of location of new reservoirs may be improved by using a numerical model that simulates sediment deposition. The proposed method was developed on a selected case for which a convenient set of data had been gathered.
Initially, the Zardezas reservoir had a capacity of 34 million m3, but presently, the capacity is only 17 million m3. Due to the levelling of two topographies in 1975 and 1986 and discharge data available from 1968 to 1993, the numerical model could be calibrated for the period 1975-1986.
As the cross-distribution of sediments is thought to be a main factor for the reservoir deposition rate, a 2-D horizontal hydrodynamic model was selected. Sediments were modelled by a concentration that was calculated using an advection-diffusion equation. A source term determining the exchange rate between the flow and the bottom as proportional to an equilibrium concentration was used. Calculation of this source term followed a simplified version of the method developed by VAN RIJN (1984). The set of 4 equations ((8) + (9) + (10) + (11)) was solved by a second-order explicit finite volume scheme of the Godunov type, which allows the modelling of very unsteady flows (PAQUIER, 1998). The bottom elevation was modified at every time step by distributing the calculated deposits inside one cell among the neighbouring vertices.
Globally, the proposed method should be carried out in two steps. The first step involved model calibration including a hydrological analysis in order to determine the inputs (water and sediments) during the calibration period and calculation of the features of the hydrological regime for the extrapolation periods. The second step involved use if the model to define management strategies. The hydrological scenarios are built from the hydrological regime and the 2-D model is used to calculate the sediment deposits for every scenario. This second step is not described in the present paper.
The hydrological analysis involved building QdF (flood-duration-frequency) curves (JAVELLE et al., 2000) from the daily discharges and from the maximum discharges of the rarest floods. Some flood discharge hydrographs were considered and were used to determine the duration of typical floods. Results from this hydrological analysis are summarised by curves in V(d,T) (Table 2) (maximum mean stream flows during the duration d for a return period T) and Q(d,T) (Table 3) (maximum over-threshold during stream flows for T) which were built from the converging QdF model developed by JAVELLE et al. (1999). The main catchment parameters D (characteristic flood duration) and the instantaneous peak discharge over a return period of 10 years were respectively equal to 4 hours and 362 m3 /s. For the estimate of the curves over a return period of 10 years, the gradex of maximum 24 hour rainfalls (estimated to be 24.7 mm) was used. From Table 3 of Q(d,T), mono frequency synthetic discharge hydrographs (HSMF) can be built (e.g. Figure 4) using a rising time equal to D. These hydrographs can be used to define hydrological scenarios by fixing the successive return periods (of the HSMF).
For the calibration period 1975 to 1986, the observed or reconstituted discharge hydrographs were used to be closer to real events (Table 4). Because concentrations were not registered precisely enough, simplified assumptions were used for the calibration period and should be kept for future scenarios (peak concentration was fixed to 100 kg/m3 and a linear relation between discharge and concentration was assumed during the flood (see Figure 5)). Only one class of sediment with a mean diameter of 0.1 mm was considered. The 2-D calculations were performed on a grid of 1005 cells (Figure 6) with a space step between 10 and 80 metres. Model calibration consisted of selecting a suitable coefficient a (in equation (12)), which is equivalent to the average distance required to reach the equilibrium concentration. For the period 1975-1986, the calculation provides 4 m thick deposits through the entire reservoir bottom (Figure 8). The discrepancies with measurements were mainly too few deposits near the dam and too much sediment accumulated on the banks of the reservoir (Figures 7 to 9).
It can be concluded that the proposed method provides useful results although some improvements are required such as: sediment exchange relations between the flow and the bottom; refining the calculation grid and reducing the uncertainty about the inputs by accurately and regularly measuring both discharge and sediment concentrations. The method should be further validated on other existing reservoirs in the same hydroclimatic context.
F. Fdil, J. J. Aaron, N. Oturan, A. Chaouch and M. A. Oturan
La dégradation photochimique de cinq herbicides appartenant à la famille des chlorophénoxyalcanoïques a été étudiée en solution aqueuse par irradiation à 254 nm selon trois systèmes : UV seul, UV/H2O2 et UV/H2O2/ FeIII (photo-Fenton). Le procédé photochimique semble constituer une alternative prometteuse aux méthodes existantes de traitement chimique des eaux polluées; en effet il permet de détruire photochimiquement l'herbicide initial et d'obtenir, dans les conditions opératoires initiales, sa minéralisation complète en CO2 et H2O. Il s'agit d'un procédé d'oxydation avancé, utilisant comme agent oxydant, des radicaux OH. produits in situ photochimiquement. L'évolution de la composition chimique des solutions d'herbicides étudiés a été suivie par chromatographie liquide à haute performance (CLHP). La minéralisation a été évaluée par mesure de la demande chimique en oxygène (DCO) et par le dosage des ions chlorures libérés. La cinétique de photodégradation, la nature et l'évolution des produits formés ainsi que le rendement du procédé ont été déterminés.
Contamination of surface and ground waters by persistent organic pollutants constitutes a serious environmental problem. A number of physical and biological methods have been proposed to remove these pollutants from industrial wastewater. However, many organic contaminants are not destroyed by these techniques. Various chemical treatment methods for polluted waters have been proposed. These methods are based on catalytic, electrochemical and photochemical reactions, known as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). However, despite these treatments, there is presently no universal technique available. Because of their widespread agricultural use, chlorophenoxyacid herbicides contaminate waterways and ground waters in France and many other European countries.
In the present study, we have investigated the photochemical degradation of several chlorophenoxyacids in aqueous solution at room temperature, by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation at 254 nm. We compared the efficiency of three different systems: UV alone; assisted photochemistry (UV/H2O2); and photo-Fenton reaction (UV/H2O2/FeIII). The latter photochemical system was found to represent a promising alternative approach, relative to existing methods of polluted water chemical treatment. The method photochemically destroyed the initial herbicides into CO2 and H2O. Also, it constitutes an AOP based on the in situ photochemical formation of OH· radicals. The evolution of the chemical composition of the herbicide samples studied was monitored by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The mineralization of the initial herbicides was evaluated by the measurement of the chemical oxygen demand (COD) and the determination of chloride ions. The photodegradation kinetics, the nature and evolution of the photoproducts as well as the process yield were studied for the three photochemical systems for five different chlorophenoxyacid herbicides, including 2-(2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxy)propionic acid (MCPP), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)propionic acid (2,4-DP) and 2,4,5-trichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4,5-T).
Photodegradation by UV alone was relatively slow and partial, taking place in 1 h for MCPA, 1.5 h for MCPP and 3 h for 2,4-D. This process did not completely destroy the photoproducts. The mineralization yields for the organic matter were 64 %, for MCPA, 69 % for MCPP, 42 % for 2,4-DP and 35 % for 2,4-D, following an irradiation time of 2 h. The technique based on the photolysis of hydrogen peroxide (UV/H2O2) produced a more rapid photodecomposition, occurring within about 30 min for MCPA and MCPP and more than 60 min for 2,4-D and 2,4,5-T. The corresponding mineralization yields for the organic matter were 79 % for MCPP and 2,4-DP and 56 % for 2,4-D. The absolute rate constants for the reaction with hydroxyl radicals were found to be1.5×109, 1.6×109, 3.2×109 and 3.6×109 M-1 s-1 respectively for 2,4,5-T, 2,4-DP, MCPP and MCPA using this technique.
The photo-Fenton system significantly improved the kinetic performance and mineralization yield. The photodegradation times were 7 min for MCPA, 10 min for MCPP, 40 min for 2,4-D and 60 min for 2,4,5-T, whereas the mineralization yields reach respective values of 96 % for MCPP, 95 % for MCPA, 80 % for 2,4-D, 94 % for 2,4-DP and 89 % for 2,4,5-T.
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