Using the 1966 and 1973 (74) Quebec input-output tables we try to identify the sources of variations in the effective protection rates of 169 manufacturing activities between these two periods, namely, changes in nominal tariffs, input-output structures and international export shares. Our results suggest that, between 1969 and 1974, there were a certain number of activities where entrepreneurs used relatively more of the intermediate inputs which had become cheaper (technical substitution effect). However, most of the changes in the effective protection rate values remain explained by changes in the external nominal tariff. The impact of changes in international export shares is itself negligible. Finally the study provides the effective protection rates of the 169 activities for 1977 (given the 1973-74) input-output structure.
According to the multiple-gap hypothesis, investment decisions, determined by the joint action of multiple determinants, result from the dominance at the time of the decision of the most constraining of these factors. This hypothesis is tested on Dutch investment data for the period 1951-1974 by means of three types of models: a "rigid" model in which a single regime is selected at any time, and two "flexible" models allowing for a joint action of the various determinants, the last model incorporating a switching mechanism with respect to the dominant factor. Estimation problems are discussed and the results obtained with the different models are compared.
This article develops and discusses the foundations of the marxist wage-theory. According to this theory, the labor force is a commodity, so it has a use value and an exchange value. Exchange value becomes a price and the wage, on a market, becomes the labor market.
A detailed examination of these statements leads to several critical remarks. The main one is that the theory cannot describe and explain the contents of the value of the labor force and is unable to understand how the exchange value of labor force is changing in a price: the wage. That is a fundamental critique from the marxist epistemologic point of view, which needs a radical reconstruction of the theory.
This paper applies the Heckscher-Ohlin hypothesis to the location of regional manufacturing industries in Canada. The empirical results demonstrate with strong evidence the first hypothesis that Quebec and Ontario enjoy different locational characteristics because of their relative factor endowments. More precisely, firms operating in Quebec adopt labor-intensive production process relatively to those located in Ontario which choose a capital-intensive production technique. The statistical results of the second hypothesis confirm sufficiently that both provinces increased their specialization in industries when they have a relative increasing comparative advantage respectively labor-intensive industries for Quebec and capital-intensive industries for Ontario. Finally, those hypotheses are confirmed not only for the twenty two-digit manufacturing industries of the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC), but also for thirty-one three-digit manufacturing industries.
The concept of useful energy consumption has been used by some authors by weighting observed energy consumptions. It is argued in this paper that the weights should not be the regression parameter estimates of the GNP on various forms of energy consumptions as they are now, but they should be the mechanical use efficiency of each energy form. A number of functional forms of the GNP are then obtained, all very good from the econometric viewpoint. Finally, it is pointed out that the rate of substitution between different forms of energy does depend on the functional form of the GNP
This paper deals with a bivalent family allowance plan comprising on the one hand a universal component and on the other, a selective component varying according to income. It will be shown that this plan will simultaneously comply with the horizontal equity objective for compensating dependants and the objective for making up family income deficiencies. This type of program must be integrated to a social welfare scheme for adults. The above-mentioned integrated scheme avoids the need for fiscal instruments such as tax credits and exemptions. Moreover, the proposed guaranteed family income scheme is preferable to a conventional guaranteed family income scheme in so far as it is as effective and generally even more effective, in making up family income deficiencies, while at the same time, insuring a horizontal equity compensation for the cost of raising children to those families whose incomes are above the poverty line. Finally, the proposed scheme is better than standard schemes because the disincentive effect on beneficiaries with regard to work effort is less.