Articles: Empirical Research
Using Visual Methods to Capture Patient Perspectives in Interprofessional Team-Based Care for Chronic Disease Management
Shannon L. Sibbald, Benson Law, Rachelle Van Asseldonk, Olivia Ly and Christopher Licskai
Background: Understanding how patients perceive their role in the healthcare team can improve overall satisfaction of care and health outcomes. However, it has been challenging to capture the diversity of patient experiences using traditional research approaches. The goal of this study was to explore the perspectives of patients involved in an interprofessional team-based chronic disease management program for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using visual research techniques. Methods: Our visual approach began with patients autonomously drawing (or mapping) experiences with their healthcare team. The maps were explored with the patients through focus group discussions. Maps were inductively coded to identify similarities and differences between participants’ perceptions. Focus group transcripts were first analyzed independently, then compared to and integrated into the map analysis. Findings: Overall, participants (n = 13) were satisfied as patients of team-based care. Participants drew multiple healthcare providers, sources of information, and themselves to represent their teams. Relationships and significance were represented using arrows, the size of each team member, facial expressions, and symbols. Four key elements of effective team-based models of care emerged: 1) effective information sharing, 2) diversity of providers’ roles, 3) empowerment through self-management, and 4) enhanced access to care. Conclusion: This study used visualization methodology to obtain patient feedback on the program’s performance, elicit patients’ experiences, and attempt to mitigate some of the limitations of isolated survey and focus group methodology, subsequently obtaining rich data on team-based care. Our research also informs ongoing quality improvement of the team nbased model for chronic disease management.
Ben Darlow, Melanie Brown, Eileen McKinlay, Lesley Gray and Sue Pullon
Background: Health systems globally need more clinicians to work rurally and in community-based primary care. This study explores factors influencing health graduates’ choice of clinical setting and geographical location during early careers, across a range of disciplines that work together to support the health of people in community-based and rural locations.
Methods: Students from eight disciplines (n = 611) were recruited prior to their final year of pre-registration training. Data were collected via three electronic surveys completed at the end of participants’ first, second, and third year of clinical practice. Data were managed and analyzed with Template Analysis.
Findings: Similar factors influenced clinical setting and location choice but differed in relative importance for each. The nature of the job itself was the most important factor influencing clinical setting choices. A broader range of influences were important to geographical location choices including personal reasons, the nature of the job, the nature of the location, and job availability and opportunities. Regulatory or training requirements limited choices available to some clinicians, particularly those from medicine.
Conclusion: A range of complex and interacting factors influenced health graduates’ career choices. Findings indicate that a broad system-wide approach is needed to address community and rural health workforce needs.
Shannon L. Sibbald, Stefan Paciocco, Lucy Huizhu Chen, Atharv Joshi, Madonna Ferrone and Christopher Licskai
Background: Peer-to-peer (P2P) learning occurs when individuals from similar social groups or professions help each other to learn new knowledge skills or problem solving. Peer-to-peer learning is used across many disciplines but has not been widely studied in primary care or chronic disease management. This study explored the use of an interprofessional P2P approach to support the implementation of a chronic disease management program in primary care for patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), known as Best Care COPD (BCC).
Methods and findings: A single descriptive case study design was used to explore P2P learning implementation approach. Focus groups and key informant interviews were held with providers involved in implementation (n = 26). Three key components of the P2P approach were identified: 1) an interprofessional team, 2) iterative peer-led training, and 3) continuous peer connection. Three recommendations are provided to support future P2P efforts: 1) enlist a champion in each profession, 2) build a P2P community, and 3) implement succession planning.
Conclusion: This article provides an empirical example of the use of a P2P approach in primary care program implementation. The results will inform the future implementation of programs for chronic disease management as well as the continued sustainability of the BCC program.