Language and Literacy
Langue et littératie
Volume 23, Number 3, 2021
Table of contents (9 articles)
Faire la lecture aux élèves du préscolaire et du primaire : point de vue d’enseignantes sur la planification de cette activité d’enseignement dans des écoles francophones de l’Ontario
Dans les classes du préscolaire et du primaire, les enseignants sont vivement encouragés à faire quotidiennement la lecture aux élèves. De nombreuses recherches ont mis en évidence les multiples avantages pouvant en résulter. Or, une planification méticuleuse de cette activité est nécessaire pour mener aux résultats escomptés. La présente étude mène au constat que les enseignantes négligent diverses composantes essentielles lors de la planification de leurs séances de lecture, ce qui risque de réduire le potentiel d’apprentissage que cette activité de lecture peut offrir à leurs élèves.
Les effets d’une approche littératiée sur la communication orale en classe de mathématiques de 7e/8e année dans un programme d’immersion française
Marie-Josée Morneau and Daniel Bérubé
Cet article traite des principaux résultats d’une étude ayant comme objectif de mesurer les effets d’une approche littératiée sur les habiletés de communication orale en langue seconde lors d’un cours de mathématique dans une classe de 7e/8e année dans un programme d’immersion française précoce au Manitoba, Canada. Certains tests paramétriques ont démontré un effet positif sur la structure syntaxique à l’oral, ce qui suggère que l’approche littératiée peut jouer un rôle clé dans la facilitation du raisonnement mathématique en contexte immersif.
This article reports the primary results of a study exploring the effects of a literacy-based approach on oral accuracy in second language during a Grade 7/8 mathematics class in a French Immersion program in Manitoba, Canada. Some of the parametric tests showed a positive effect on sentence structure in oral communication, which suggests that a literacy-based approach can play a key role in the facilitation of oral communication in mathematics in an immersion setting.
The Name Jar Project: Supporting Preservice Teachers in Working with English Language Learners
Classrooms are becoming more linguistically and culturally diverse and many educators are feeling unprepared to meet the varied needs of English language learners (ELLs). Through a larger design-based research doctoral study, I collaborated with 11 preservice teachers and 28 ELLs in Grades 2 and 3 to design and implement a literacy intervention that focused on cultivating literacy engagement to foster English language development. This paper documents the positive impact the implementation of the literacy intervention, also known as the Name Jar Project, had on supporting the preservice teachers’ emerging practice. Analysis of focus group data, preservice teachers’ written reflections, and field notes revealed that (a) the preservice teachers, through their informal learning experiences, were able to empathize with the ELLs’ strengths and challenges of learning English; (b) the service learning model provided a safe learning environment for preservice teachers to gain practical experience working with ELLs; and (c) through the research design, preservice teachers connected practice and theory to inform their future teaching experiences.
"I'm Not the Only Writer in The Room": A Framework for Co-Creating Confident Writing Classrooms
Jen McConnel and Pamela Beach
This study is rooted in social cognitive theory, specifically Bandura's work on self-and collective efficacy. The authors explore self reported confidence levels with writing instruction from secondary teachers across subjects in Canada and the United States by pairing a self-efficacy scale developed by Locke and Johnston (2016) with semi-structured interviews conducted via Skype. 60 teachers participated in the survey, with 25 from Canada and 35 from the United States. Although teachers report relatively strong levels of self efficacy in writing instruction, the responses of participants regarding collective efficacy are more mixed. Based on these results, coupled with six interviews (split evenly between teachers in Canada and the United States), the authors propose a framework to help teachers of all subject areas increase their confidence in writing instruction while also helping students develop their own confidence as writers. This three-pronged framework of identity, context, and authority, relies on co-creating community with students. The potential of this framework is creative, offering teachers (and students) multiple ways into a conversation about writing that will not only enhance confidence, but will create a classroom culture in which diverse writing strategies and perspectives are valued.
Literary Scholars’ Disciplinary Literacy Orientations
Eric D. Rackley
This study examines how four university-based literary scholars in the United States read literary texts. Findings suggest that the scholars used four related literary literacy orientations in their reading: They attended to their affective experiences with literature, built recursive interpretations of literature, contextualized literature, and recognized and managed literary complexity. As broad-level disciplinary ways of navigating literature, these literary literacy orientations included the scholars’ meaning-making practices as well as their beliefs, feelings, and attitudes about literature and making sense of it. Findings support and build upon existing scholarship on English disciplinary literacies and offer paths for further research.
Access and Use of Digital Technologies in Early Childhood: A Review of Mixed Messages in Popular Media
Laura Teichert, Jim Anderson, Ann Anderson, Jan Hare and Marianne McTavish
This paper reports on an analysis of 60 print and online articles collected in a metropolitan area in Canada that describe children’s digital engagement through a focus on ‘early literacy’ or ‘digital literacy’. Findings reveal mixed messages about children’s use of digital technology that create competing frames for adults supporting (or not) young children’s digital literacy practices. Digital technology was often characterized as something to limit/control, except in school, where digital literacy was characterized as holding a proper place when controlled by educators. Consistent across media messaging was the promotion of traditional, print-based texts as an essential early literacy practice.
Exploring Literacy Coach Research in Canada: A Review
Peng Liu, Xuyang Li and Zhuoma Ciren
The purpose of this review is to understand literacy coach research in Canada in order to facilitate further research in this regard. Research about literacy coaches in Canada remains at an initial stage, and there is no universally accepted definition of a “literacy coach.” Most literacy coach research in Canada has used a qualitative method. The research has shown that literacy coaches in Canada, who act as both guides and supporters in schools, also experience many challenges such as role confusion and inadequate time for carrying out their work. Scholars believe that setting up coaching models and collaboration may be ideal ways to deal with these problems. This review also found that the research has concentrated on literacy coaches in elementary and secondary schools in Ontario. This article concludes with implications and suggestions for future research about Canadian literacy coaches. More analysis about literacy coaches’ identity, their relationships with other stakeholders in the education system, and the challenges they face is needed in the Canadian context.
Silly Putty: Mobilization of the Known Across Technology-Enhanced Learning Spaces
Melanie M. Wong
In technology-enhanced classrooms, due to the affordances of technologies, English Language Learners (ELLs) are moving between learning spaces; boundaries are never clear. Questions arise with regards to how students’ non-sanctioned experiences might mediate classroom learning. Using a multiliteracies (New London Group, 2000) and learning by design (Cope & Kalantzis, 2015) theoretical lens, this ethnographic case study explores the technology-enhanced learning experiences of Grade 6 ELLs. Data including field observations, artifacts, and interviews were analyzed using thematic analysis (Saldaña, 2016). Findings of this study indicate that ELL students were engaged in learning experiences that encouraged them to mobilize their known (knowledge) across learning spaces.
K-12 ESL Writing Instruction: A Review of Research on Pedagogical Challenges and Strategies
Subrata Bhowmik and Marcia Kim
Writing is an important early literacy skill for English as a Second Language (ESL) students’ academic success, underlining the importance of effective ESL writing instruction at the K-12 level. However, there is little empirical research on ESL writing instruction in school settings. The goal of this systematic literature review is to examine the extant empirical evidence of the challenges teachers encounter in teaching ESL writing and the strategies that can be adopted to help teachers overcome the challenges. Our search yielded 49 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters published between 2010-2019. A content analysis (Stan, 2009) of these materials indicated that teachers encounter the following challenges in teaching K-12 ESL writing: (a) lack of pre-service training in ESL writing, (b) lack of writing pedagogy skills, (c) lack of time, (d) lack of professional development opportunities, (e) standardized tests, and (f) unique L1 influences on L2 students’ text production. The content analysis also revealed the following strategies that can be recommended for addressing these challenges: (a) incorporating an ESL writing course into teacher education programs, (b) creating opportunities for writing pedagogy support by mentor teachers and researchers, (c) incorporating integrated skills development in the writing classroom, (d) providing students with opportunities to write more, (e) adopting explicit writing instruction, and (f) creating professional development opportunities for teachers. Based on our findings, we discuss implications and recommendations for ESL writing instruction in K-12 schools.