This article examines the social economy through the prism of a contemporary of Polanyi rarely cited in studies: Ivan Illich (1926-2002). The author applies the theory of the tools of conviviality developed by Illich to the social and solidarity economy to better identify the possible links and contributions of the conviviality movement, a social movement that envisages a different kind of civilisation, a civilisation of conviviality opposed to the inhumanity of the world. For the author, Ivan Illich could be included in the family of SSE thinkers and thus reinvent the SSE approach. The connections with conviviality could reinvigorate the political and theoretical foundations of a contemporary SSE freeing us from capitalism.
This article looks at the PLC with employee participation (société anonyme à participation ouvrière, SAPO) as it celebrates its centenary while the 2014 SSE legislation has not promoted this form of participatory firm. The authors first look at the SAPO as a legal form, in particular in comparison with a workers’ cooperative (société coopérative de production, SCOP). They then retrace the history that led to the creation and development of this legal form in 1917. Lastly, through a study of two of them, Ambiance Bois and Nova Construction, the very current relevance of the SAPO form is highlighted in two cases. The first concerns an employee buyout and the second as a way of ensuring workers’ self-management over the long term.
L’économie sociale dans le monde
/ The Social Economy Around the World
This article analyses the effectiveness of cooperatives for both local development and protecting biodiversity and enhancing its economic value. Based on a study of the argan forest in south-west Morocco, the author shows how argan oil’s old-fashioned production methods and informal marketing system restrict yields and profits, maintain persistent poverty and strain this natural resource. Forming cooperatives of women producers has improved product quality, protected this natural resource, better organised the sector and brought it institutional recognition that increases the value of the finished product on the formal national and international market.
L’économie sociale en mémoires
/ The Social Economy in History
This article examines the history of the agricultural cooperative movement in Argentina from its beginnings until today in the context of the evolution of the national agricultural model. The article identifies four main stages. The first cooperative experiments occurred in the late 19th century when Argentina became an agricultural exporting country. The cooperative movement then expanded and consolidated thanks to the growth of the domestic market during the first half of the 20th century. During the second half of the 20th century, the indebtedness and difficulties of small and medium producers gradually led to stagnation and a debate about organisational forms. In the recent period, in a sector dominated by agribusiness, cooperatives have experienced various successive states of crisis, disappearance, and/or conversion.
This article looks at the “uberisation” of employment relations as this innovative model becomes a widespread reality in our society. The intermediation platforms that respond to unmet consumer demand while providing an alternative employment solution for the unemployed seem to have reinvented employment relations and present a new economic model. However, is this really such a new and original way of operating? The article develops its argument by making a comparison with the canuts, the weavers in Lyon’s silk mills in the 19th century. It also pursues historically tested avenues, such as the mutual movement, to frame this new model of a “digital economy on demand” that challenges social systems and leaves a growing number of workers without legal protection.