Les relations de travail en Europe occidentale et leur signification au niveau des communautés nationales
Dans la présente étude, l'auteur tente dévaluer jusqu'à quel point les systèmes de relations du travail en Europe occidentale sont intégrés aux différentes communautés nationales où ils s'inscrivent. Quelques aspects particuliers de ces systèmes sont soulignés à cet effet.
In view of the new labour relations « atmosphere » in Western Europe, which was described at the beginning of this study, and of the institutional and legal frameworks characterizing them at this time, how do these industrial relations systems fit into the economy as a whole and the political life of the countries under review ?
Some comments are required in order to pinpoint them in the dynamics of national contexts within which they now come.
INCREASING PARTICIPATION OF THE PUBLIC POWERS IN ECONOMIC AND SOCIAL MATTERS
One of the principal points which distinguish most European countries from the United States and Canada is the much greater role played by the public powers in economic and social matters, especially since the end of the last war.
As a matter of fact, the abandonment of liberalism by the public powers, while increasing their role in labour relations, has carried the action of the social partners from the industrial level to the national level, where meetings are made within vast « co-operation » or at least « dialogue » organizations : The Central Economic Council and the National Labour Council in Belgium ; the Labour Foundation and the Economic and Social Council in the Netherlands ; the Economic and Social Council, and the Superior Commission for Collective Agreements and Plan in France ; the National Economic Development Council in England, etc.
In those countries, such as Germany and Scandinavia, where the public powers seem to intervene least they are just as effective indirectly and sometimes rather brutally in labour relations, when the social partners appear to be incapable of satisfying the political will of the governments. This occurred on several occasions and even very recently in Denmark. When the Employer's Confederation and the LO could not come to an agreement in Denmark during the negotiations of 1962-63, the government intervened and passed an Act which simply extended the existing agreement for two more years.
In Belgium and in the Netherlands, what is remarkable is the positive contribution made, in spite of differing interests and ideologies, by the social partners to the effective operation of organizations such as the National Labour Council and the Central Economic Council in Belgium, and the Labour Foundation and the Economic and Social Council in Holland. It is also the intelligent contribution they make and the systematic canvassing of their participation, advice and resources by the public powers.
In France, labour participation in various public organizations such as the Economic and Social Council, the Superior Commission for Collective Agreements and Plan, was far less spontaneous and often rather weak. At first sight, this may seem to be rather paradoxical, if one knows that the C.G.T., even before the last war, had already submitted a claim for the Economic and Social Council.
But with the post-war political climate, the split of 1947 and the takeover of the C.G.T. by the Communists, and with the increased power of management coupled with its first opposition to State intervention, French labour, because of its congenital weakness, and its attitudes against politics and for marked disputes could not give the same co-operation as in Belgium or Holland.
The fact remains that in France, as elsewhere in continental Europe, trade unions, while maintaining their ideological positions abandoned to all intents and purposes by most other European trade unions, increasingly accept to participate in spite of the fundamental dilemma which now confronts them.1 It goes without saying that this is especially the case of the C.F.T.C. and the F.O., although the C.G.T. itself is re-orienting its attitudes in the face of the ineluctable nature of institutionalized consultation. 2
In our opinion, Great Britain presents the most difficult case in co-operation at the national level. Governmental attempts such as the National Incomes Commission have given practically no results at all. English management is opposed to government intrusion in matters related to income and labour relations. Until now, labour have rejected the concept of a national incomes policy and whereas the T.U.C. adopted a slightly more conciliatory attitude towards the National Economic Development Council, it has not obtained the complete backing of its members.
In Great Britain, a concerted economy policy has not been endorsed without reservations. Management and labour have a deep-rooted tradition of self help and this has done nothing to prepare co-operation with the public powers in economic and social matters within the framework of government policies. It is still the era of « collective laissez-faire », an expression used by professor Kahn-Freund. 3
Structurally, in our opinion, the social partners are not as well equipped in Great Britain as in the other European countries at this time for co-operation at the national level. Even though from the point of view of membership and power in making demands on the labour market, trade unions are more powerful than they are in other countries, the obsolete structures of their frameworks, the multiplicity of organizations, the lack of cohesion in leadership and the little control that the T.U.C. has over its affiliated bodies, are all factors of which the labour movement in Britain is trying to find its essence within itself and cannot, at the national level, project a solid and unified image with the other social classes, public opinion and government.
Management also has the same problems. Organizations such as the « British Employers' Confederation » to name only one do not have even the shadow of the powers of their equivalent organizations in other European countries over affiliated members.
There is therefore less inclination to accept without reservations any great intervention by the public powers since there was not developed truly representative structures such as would be required by dialogue at summit. In our opinion, as long as English management and trade unionism will not have achieved greater representation at the summit, through serious internal reforms of plans, structures and powers (and this would not seem at the moment to be the case),4we do not believe that the union-management-government triangle can operate as effectively as in the other European countries.
THE SOCIAL PARTNERS AND POLITICS
In Europe, trade unions seem to co-operate more actively and with less hesitation when they are strong politically. This is the case in Sweden and Denmark where trade unions have very strong links with social democratic parties, and these alliances give them a quasi-public status. This is also the case in Belgium and the Netherlands.
In Germany, France and Italy, and especially in the two latter countries, there has been some tendency for labour confederations to gradually shift away from political parties, as the economic situation permitted them to take more effective direct economic action on the labour market, popular ideologies were watered down with the rise in standards of living, the public parties whatever their political affiliation intervened more in the economy and labour relations and the way was opened for effective participation and dialogue within councils and commissions of all kinds, which « institutionalized » in the manner of speaking demands at the national level.
It must be noted that in Germany, as indeed in France, socialist parties were in opposition and political leaders such as Dr. Erhard were committed to an unplanned economic policy ( Neo-Liberalism ).
Trade unions, at least through their official leaders, seemed to accept the situation and thus consider their labour organizations primarily as business concerns. There was fear in all quarters in Germany of excessive concentration of decision centers, which could lead in time to the destruction of democratic liberties so cruelly crushed under the Hitler regime.
It should be pointed out that, in view of the present political climate in Germany in social and economic matters, as is indeed the case in France, management now is most powerful with the State in implementing government wishes in this field.
Although Great Britain's problems are primarily economic, they are further complicated by economic factors. To take only one example, trade unions in this country conserved more ideological content than other European countries, however paradoxical this may appear to be at first sight. The close ties they maintained with the labour party gave rise to two different problems, the first of which was clearly defined by Bernard Donoughue : « When the government is conservative. the unions have the difficult task of helping to improve the economic record of their political opponents. Co-operation with a labour government will be easier psychologically, yet the basic economic problems will remain ; the unions will still be required to subordinate sectional interest — which may mean limiting the autonomy of the unions in the wages field. Some trade unionists may find this as galling to have their autonomy limited by the politicians they may finance as by those they fight. But can they afford to stand aside from the plans of any government, whatever its complexion, which are aimed at improving the economy of this country, on which the long-term welfare of all trade unionists depends » 5
THE ADVENT OF MANAGEMENT
As was stated at the beginning, the high degree of organization in management constitutes one of the traditional characteristics of European labour relations. We cannot stress this too much, in view of the situation in which Canadian management now finds itself in matters of organization, due to increasing intervention of the public powers in the economy.
In certain countries, such as Sweden and Denmark, management organization is solid and coherent and has existed for a long time, i.e., since the beginning of the century.
As early as 1919, countries such as Great Britain and France witnessed the formation of employer organization extending beyond the framework of one industry. However, with the establishment of the British Employers' Confederation in 1919, Great Britain obtained much sooner than France a coherent management structure. This does not take into account various organizations dedicated in different spheres (labour, regional, industrial, commercial, etc.) to the defence and promotion of the interests of the business world and constituting a very extensive network of representative organizations offering to their members professional, education and technical services.
In the matter in which we are concerned, the most significant phenomenon in post-war years was the gradual accession of European management to positions of prestige and power within their respective national communities, after the marked set-back they had suffered during the depression of the thirties, the take-over of power by fascist regimes in Italy and Germany, and the revenge taken by democratic forces of the left after the Allied victory of 1945 over the Axis powers.
Management confederations in Germany, while they were outlawed by the occupation forces until 1948, were reconstituted as of that year, in spite of the limitations that were still imposed on them, and formed in 1950, under the provisions of the fundamental Act of 1949, which was an approximate recast of the 1919 Act, the « Federal Union of Employer Associations », commonly known as the German Employer Associations Confederation. There are also boards of trade, industrial associations grouped in the German Industries Federation, which has jurisdiction over economic matters, while the German Employer Associations Confederation is limited to social matters, the latter term however including all labour relations problems, particularly salaries.
Management organization in Germany is extremely strong and influential. Amongst the countries under review, German management probably has the most power vis-à-vis the public powers and public opinion. The fact that the declared policy of the Bonn government in economic and social matters corresponds to free enterprise policy and Neo-capitalism is obviously responsible to a considerable degree for this situation.
France also offers a good example of the gradual accession of European management to a new status which is acknowledged more and more.
Traditionally, as we have seen, French management has been individualistic, largely composed of craftmen, conservative and paternalistic to the extreme, organized more or less in relations to other European countries, often routinish in its management functions and labour policies.
When Leon Blum took power with his Front Populaire in 1936, with the serious social crisis that France was then undergoing, an initial attempt was made to achieve a greater and more efficient structure for French management through a transformation of the French Production General Confederation, which became the French Management General Confederation and included not only big industry but also intermediate and small industry as well as trade, and adopted by the same token a structure similar to that of the C.G.T. both in the professional and geographical spheres.
The Matignon Agreement had shown that French management was loath to make any concession whatever to trade unions and it was only under the pressure of circumstances that certain well established positions had been abandoned ( temporarily ) to labour representatives in connection with union recognition, collective agreements, social security and salaries.
While French enterprise always showed strong hesitation for the great reforms that followed Liberation, such as the establishment of a social security in 1945-46, and about the same time for the Plan, to such an extent that it was stated that these measures were passed somewhat « in their absence », their attitudes changed very gradually ; they shifted increasingly towards and admitted an interested acceptance, to a point where they no longer questioned the very principle of such measures. More and more, the C.N.P.F. participated, through interprofessional agreements with the principal labour confederation, to the establishment of a negotiated social security system designed to supplement the minimums provided for in the statutes.
As relations between organized management and government agencies improved and as the dialogue developed, management began to lose its distrust of state intervention, objectives became more realistic and co-operation increased. Today, as was stated before, labour confederations consider this as collusion of sorts between the public powers and the business world.
The fact remains, as was the case for labour, that the dialogue is becoming institutionalized and that both parties are becoming more functional and less emotional and less ideological.
According to the observers, French management is in the process of completely rebuilding its image in social quarters and in the very eyes of labour, which is no small achievement.
This arrival point for German and French management is precisely what British employers seem to be lacking. It may be that government institutions such as the N.E.D.C., should this experience be successful, as we feel it will be, could give similar results on that side of the Channel.
It should be added, although we cannot stress the point, that the situation would appear to be similar in Belgium where the Belgian Industries Federation appears to be very influential even though, in contrast with the C.N.P.F. in France, it is not as representative of economic life, being limited to industry. 6
It should also be noted that management is very influential in the Netherlands. In all phases of labour relations, as well as in legislative texts dealing with them, for example collective negotiations, joint representation at the industry and enterprise levels, co-decision is non-existent and safeguards are always included in connection with management's rights in governing industry.
One of the most obvious consequences of management solidarity in Europe is that, in spite of the centrifugal forces of today's economic situation (full employment, increased productivity, local pressures for individual negotiations, real salaries exceeding and often by far the regulated minimums negotiated at the level of the confederation, etc.) negociations remain centralized in most cases. With the enterprise agreements of the Reynaud type in France and generalized breaches in the official ceilings at the local level in the country as a whole, one would be led to believe that the « national » agreement, gradually losing its substance, would in fact lose all its significance. In fact, North Americans would consider that this phenomenon is already very pronounced.
However, management resistance has succeeded until now in maintaining the traditional negotiations systems and without analysing the economic and social reasons for this, it does not appear that any significant movement towards American decentralization is now being initiated.7
It should be stated in this connection that the rational representatives of labour confederation in all of the countries under review are in agreement on maintaining this practice and would not be partial to any dispersing of the powers they now have.
The public powers who are now involved in delicate programs of balance and development, are not ready apparently to participate without reservations in overthrowing existing institutions.
In our opinion, however, such a system gives rise to two serious problems.
Firstly, the absence of official trade unions at the enterprise level (at least in certain countries) coupled with prosperity and its benefits, in any event obtained or granted unilaterally at the local level, has tended to undermine labour prestige at the base and with wage-earners in general, so that, in certain countries such as France, Italy, Germany and Great Britain, labour membership has tended to decrease and recruitment of new wage-earner classes gradually became more difficult. 8
Furthermore it appears to be clear that in Europe there are serious communications problems at the inter-organization level between labour membership and national leadership. The problem is particularly acute in France, the Netherlands, Germany and Great Britain. All the action is at a very high level, where complexities are such that they could not be understood by ordinary members at the factory level. Contacts are lost between members and the general staff, who operate in official spheres and is sometimes surprised of the spontaneous reaction at the labour level. 9
The solution to these problems suggested by B.C. Roberts for Great Britain but, in our opinion, applicable to other European countries, might be to have labour organizations become officially present at the enterprise level, to give a certain status to collective agreements at this level and to give them a new meaning, while maintaining or even increasing in some countries, a stronger authority in hierarchy from top to bottom, in order to ensure better control and greater flexibility to labour industrial activity.10
In spite of the numerous limitations imposed on a general study, one dominant concept stands out quite clearly, in our opinion, from the whole of labour relations systems under review, if we consider them from the point of view of their capability for labour-management-government co-operation. It is that, in spite of drawbacks, which are sometimes serious, that we might find in certain countries at the level of the structures in a prosperity context and at the level of labour democracy conceived in ideal terms, European industrial relations systems in most of the countries under review seem to be more capable of integration in general government social and economic policies than our North American systems would appear to be.
Undoubtedly, all is not perfect, far from it, and sometimes major adjustments would be needed. But essential institutions are already operating with a surprising degree of effectiveness ; mentalities in large part are adapting themselves to the new contexts, a quasi-universal desire, and one could say a divided will to understand the problems and solve them, are as many factors which impress a foreign observer in Europe.
Amongst others, two basic reasons could, in our opinion, account for this situation.
Firstly, the very nature of the systems under review has brought the social partners in Europe to develop a keen sense and a genuine anxiety for the « Community » implications of their decisions and behavior in collective relations and in achieving their group interests.
One is impressed by the broad points of view taken by each partner in evaluating his own interests and his particular problems. They are always considered in the greater perspective of general economic balance and growth problems to which it is readily admitted that, in the long run, the fate of the various corporative groups is linked.
This does not prevent labour unions from presenting demands but they always do so within these general « limitations », a better distribution of power and income for themselves and their members.
A sense of self discipline which old style labour leaders might consider as an abdication or weakness but which, in our opinion, is essential to an era of advanced and increasingly interdependent economy, seems to characterize the attitudes of most European labour movements.
Considering the problems in a broader and long-term perspective there is a growing tendency to « objectivate » their own demands through research facilities of a static and scientific nature.
In this connection, it is interesting to note the great role played by governmental agencies set up in the various European countries to look into economic and social problems since at least 10 or 15 years : economic and social councils, expert groups, national accounting services, plans, labour market offices, etc.
In recent years, study bureaus were established by the various confederations, composed of university professors and specialists and embracing practically all aspects of the problems facing the labour movement, such as The Economic and Social Study Bureau of the F.O. and the Research and Economic Action Bureau of the C.F.T.C. Finally, in some sectors, inter-union organizations were developed with the help of the government, notably the Inter-union Study Bureau of the textile industry, operating on behalf of the F.O., C.F.T.C. and C.G.C. On the management side, an example would be the study and research center for chiefs of enterprise established in 1953 by the French National Management Council in order to promote training of chiefs of enterprise through cyclical studies, discussions, meetings and seminars.
Finally, for the countries of the European Economic Community, the latter factor is important and forces to some extent the social partners of the member states to broaden their horizons and develop between themselves a discussion and adjustment atmosphere in view of economic problems which, while remaining of a competitive nature are nevertheless more and more integrated.
The economic prosperity, to which the various European « communities » have contributed, has made the partners optimistic and this facilitates arrangements and compromise. It would seem that, in these countries, there is no antagonism or difficulty between the social partners as well as between member states, which cannot be resolved by reasoned compromise and pooling of imaginative resources.
The Common Market has not yet considerably altered the components of the various national labour relations systems. However, the common institutions it helped to establish, the basic agreements made possible by the Rome Treaty on various questions, the other agreements signed by member states of other communities, the far-reaching studies undertaken on many problems of primary interest to the social partners, all this new « sociology of European social law » to borrow Professor Arthur Doucy's expression, 11 already seem to be underlying a yet unknown evolution in labour relations institutional and legal frameworks in Europe towards greater cohesion and increasing awareness of the vaster groups and their requirements.
(1) « The fourth plan ( 1962-65 ) witnessed a renewal of labour participation :
281 persons belonging to four big confederations were appointed to commissions
and working groups' », in : J.D. REYNAUD,op. cit., p. 238.
(2) Having maintained its attitude of opposition to the fourth plan until the
eve of its 1963 congress, the C.G.T. witnessed at this congress a rather radical
change in tone and Benoit Franchon implicitly rejected total opposition in his
(3) « The belief in the value of collective bargaining is held with almost religious fervour », cited by W.F. FRANK, The Drift Towards a British National Wages Policy, in Current Law and Social Problems, Vol. III, Toronto, 1963, p. 73.
(4) B.C. ROBERTS,op. cit., pp. 20 and seq.
(5) BERNARD DONOUGHUE and JANET ALKER,Trade Unions in a Changing Society, P.E.P., Vol. XXIX, No. 472, London, 1963, p. 195.
(6) This is also the case for the British B.E.C., the German Employer Associations Confederation and the Italian Confindustria.
(7) It seems that the tendency in Denmark is towards greater centralization. In 1962, both sides agreed to negotiate first at the confederation level and then at the level of the various sectors to adapt the master agreement while prior to this negotiations were carried out at lower levels before agreement was reached at the summit.
(8) On this subject, see ARTHUR ROSS, Prosperity and Labor Relations in Europe : The Case of West Germany, the Quarterly Journal of Economies, Vol. LXXVI, August 1962, pp. 338 and seq.
(9) A recent example was in the Netherlands where tension which led to an increase of the salaries set by the Labour Foundation last year, through a certain « rebellion » of a few big employers, surprised even national labour leaders.
(10) B.C. ROBERTS,op. cit., pp. 8-13.
(11) ARTHUR DOUCY in« Éléments de droit social européen », by LEON-ELI TROCLET, Institute of Sociology of the Free University of Brussels, Preliminary Edition, Brussels, 1963, Foreword, p. X.
In his paper, the author presents methods to forecast long-term manpower requirements : employer interviews, extrapolation of trends derived from historical data, standard growth curves, examination of the technology and manpower demand in new firms and industries, study of occupational growth prospects and requirements, comprehensive econometric models. And finally, the article contains a brief examination of French and American current research and practices in long-term manpower forecasting.
La demande de main-d'oeuvre à long terme est influencée par divers facteurs parmi lesquels on trouve: 1) le taux de croissance économique et sa composition par industrie et par région; 2) le taux de changement technologique; 3) le taux de croissance de la population, etc.
Certains problèmes de méthode se présentent dans la préparation de telles prévisions. En effet, il faut tenir compte du fait : a) que l'offre et la demande de main-d'oeuvre sont interdépendantes; b) que les méthodes de prévisions appropriées aux pays industrialisés diffèrent de celles appropriées aux pays sous développés ; et c) que les prévisions à moyen terme et à long terme sont influencées par les politiques adoptées à court terme.
On a utilisé diverses méthodes pour faire des prévisions de demande de main-d'oeuvre : 1) questionnaires adressés aux employeurs; 2) extrapolations; 3) études de la demande de main-d'oeuvre dans des pays ou régions plus industrialisés ; 4) études de la demande de main-d'oeuvre dans des nouvelles firmes et industries ; 5) études du changement dans la composition de la main-d'oeuvre et de l'emploi par occupation et par industrie à l'aide de tableaux genre input-output ; 6 ) modèles économétriques.
Quoique chacune de ses méthodes contribue au problème de prévision, aucune ne suffit par elle-même. L'auteur préfère cependant la méthode économétrique qui intègre des projections: 1) de population; 2) de main-d'oeuvre; 3) de production (globalement et par industrie) ; et 4) des ajustements pour le changement technologique et la diminution dans les heures de travail.
La discussion résume les travaux poursuivis présentement aux Etats-Unis et en France en ce qui a trait à la prévision à long terme de la demande de main-d'oeuvre.
En guise de conclusion, l'auteur suggère l'usage de la méthode économétrique afin de préparer des prévisions de demande de main-d'oeuvre pour des groupes d'occupations et des niveaux d'éducation assez largement définis.
Il suggère aussi une étude plus poussée du problème qui se présente dans la traduction des demandes par occupation en termes de durée et de catégorie d'enseignement, tout en notant qu'il n'y a pas de correspondance systématique entre la formation reçue et l'occupation d'un individu, un fait qui supporte une autre conclusion qui dit, le plus détaillée sera la prévision de demande de main-d'oeuvre, le moins elle sera utile.
Il y a une vingtaine d'années, la plupart des entreprises ne se livraient que dans une mesure très limitée au recrutement systématique des diplômés universitaires: ceux-ci étaient peu nombreux et les directeurs des entreprises qui étaient sortis du rang n'étaient pas disposés à les affecter à des postes supérieurs. Aujourd'hui, la situation a changé. L'auteur aborde le problème tant du point de vue théorique que du point de vue pratique.
COMPANY PLANNING FOR UNIVERSITY RECRUITMENT
This essay discusses company planning for university recruitment. Implicit in the notion of planning is, of course, the setting of goals, the evaluation of needs, and the selection of means [steps, procedures, techniques] most conducive to the attainment of the goals and the gratification of the needs ; in other words, planning is knowing why and where, and determining how, prior to direct action on a given problem.
Essential, on the other hand, to the concept of recruitment as it is used nowadays is the idea of outer-directedness, of seeking out, of reaching for someone or something. Two decades ago, most companies did little seeking or reaching of a systematic nature for university graduates ; these were relatively few, and many a company executive who had come up from the ranks with only limited formal education were still wondering whether they should lay emphasis on that so-called high-talent manpower for high-level jobs when it was customary to promote from within and to hire even college graduates for low-level jobs. For most employers, the company grapevine, or contacts with professional clubs or associations, or an anonymous ad in the papers, were considered sufficient to fill in immediately-needed replacements. Any plan or step beyond those would have been termed exaggerated and too costly.
Since the end of World War II, however, university recruitement by corporations has gradually become more deliberate and elaborate. With the advent of the new technology and the development of the behavioral sciences as applied to industry, there has emerged a fresh realization by top management of the need for ever more university graduates with more knowledge to join the ranks of industry. Formal training in institutions of higher learning has ceased to be opposed to practical experience without theoretical knowledge and has slowly taken precedence over it. Tight markets for high-talent manpower and tougher competition between firms have led the latter at the doorsteps of pertinent universities, so as to better get the ear of the placement directors and to get a closer look at potential candidates for employment still in the making. When Mohammed does not go to the mountain, or rather to one's specific little mount, all individual mounts must go to Mohammed, however costly, time-consuming or mortifying the process may be !
Such a process, which I believe to be irreversible, is likely to increase in amplitude and importance during the coming years, since we are only on the threshold of what Mr. Hann [Arthur S., & George S. Odiorne. Effective College Recruiting. Ann Arbor, Mich. : Bureau of Industrial Relations, University of Michigan, 1961.] has called the « Age of Growth », and which could also be named the « Age of Knowledge » : technical and administrative knowledge at all levels of the business concern, and especially at the top. And irrespective of the fact that universities are already producing and will presently develop more and more graduates, demand from industry will far outweigh supply, so that scarcity of university graduates will for years to come invite company recruiters to knock at the door of the university with much competition around.
Such being the prospect, how should companies plan their recruitment in the universities ? This is the object of this paper, and no small one at that. I fulfil it by relying on two different levels of discussion, namely : the theoretical and the practical. Theoretically, I tackle the following topics : planning and needs determination ; developing cooperation within the company ; allocating responsibility for college recruiting ; the recruiting team ; recruiting procedures ; and relationships between the firm and the university. Discussion of the practical aspects includes : the structural relationships within the organization and the evaluation of present and future needs ; the application of the mixed formula of recruiting ; the recruiting team ; recruiting practices and relations between the team and the universities and graduate students.
C. C. Lundberg and A. Mikalachki
The purpose of this paper is to show the evolution of manpower management by taking into accounts the socio-cultural context from which the need of conscious and rational personnel administration has originated.
Ce travail a pour but de montrer l'évolution de la direction du personnel en prenant soin de souligner les facteurs qui affectent la nature et l'étendue de cette fonction.
Cette évolution s'échelonne sur trois grandes périodes.
1.—LA PÉRIODE « EOTECHNIQUE »
L'utilisation du bois, de la pierre, de l'eau, du vent et de l'animal comme matières premières et sources de pouvoir caractérise cette première phase de l'évolution. Le type d'organisation sociale qui prévalait à ce moment-là était l'artisanat. C'était une société bien établie, enracinée dans la tradition offrant peu d'avenues à la mobilité occupationnelle. En empruntant les types de caractères sociaux élaborés par Riesman, on peut considérer cette période comme étant « tradition-directed ».
Le besoin de se préoccuper d'une façon consciente et rationnelle de la conduite des hommes ne se faisait pas sentir. L'assimilation des valeurs culturelles et l'apprentissage des rôles assuraient un minimum de discipline.
2.—LA PÉRIODE « PALÉOTECHNIQUE »
Elle se situe entre les années 1750 et 1850. L'utilisation du fer et de la machine à vapeur permet alors un accroissement des possibilités de production et ouvrent la voie à la naissance des usines. Un début d'aliénation au travail et dans la vie hors-travail se manifeste au cours de cette seconde phase. Le caractère social qui prévaut alors est celui de l'intra-détermination. Aux yeux des dirigeants de l'entreprise, le travail apparaît comme un processus rationnel et technique. Le surplus de main-d'oeuvre causé par l'exode moral, les méthodes complexes d'administration, l'orientation autoritaire des dirigeants sont autant de facteurs qui pointaient le besoin d'une direction systématique du personnel.
3.—LA PÉRIODE « NÉOTECHNIQUE »
Cette dernière phase date depuis 1850 jusqu'à nos jours. L'utilisation de l'acier, l'aluminium, l'électricité et l'énergie nucléaire contribue d'une manière significative à la révolution technique. C'est l'avènement du gigantisme tant industriel que syndical ouvrant les avenues à l'urbanisation et la possibilité d'ascension sociale. Cette période est celle de l'extra-détermination, caractérisée par une tendance à chercher à travers autrui une identité personnelle et des modes de comportement qui ont reçu une approbation sociale.
Un besoin d'une direction efficace du personnel devient alors urgent au sein des grandes bureaucraties. Ce besoin est satisfait dans la mesure où l'on retrouve au sein des organisations des dirigeants qui s'acquittent de la fonction « personnel » et des spécialistes qui mettent sur pied des services du personnel.
Jurisprudence du travail
Commission des Relations du Travail – Composition des bancs – Litige intersyndical – Effet de procédures pendantes devant les tribunaux, existant entre les parties
La Commission des Relations du Travail, à l'occasion d'une requête en révision de décision, décide des règles de la composition des bancs et de l'interprétation qu'il faut donner à l'expression « litige intersyndical » ; elle décide en outre que le fait, pour un syndicat requérant en accréditation, d'être partie à un conflit avec l'employeur, devant les tribunaux, n'infirme pas un caractère de bonne foi.1
(1) L'Association des Travailleurs de Murdochville, requérante, et Métallurgistes-Unis d'Amérique, local 6086, intimés, et Gaspé Copper Mines Limited, mise-en-cause; Commission des Relations du Travail du Québec, Dossier no 4445-8-10; Hon. juge Gérard Vaillancourt, J.d., vice-président; Québec, le 19 Juin 1965; Me Fernand Guertin, c.r., pour la requérante; Mes Désaulniers et al, pour l'intimé; Me Gaston Pouliot, c.r., pour la mise-en-cause.
La Commission des Relations de Travail du Québec interprète l'article 36 du Code du Travail (ancien article 10a de la Loi des Relations ouvrières) et décide, à la majorité, que lorsque le travail accordé en sous-traitance (sous-contrat) est compris dans l'orbite de l'entreprise ; que ce travail est fait sous la direction immédiate et constante des contremaîtres de cette dernière ; que les occupations relatives à ce travail ne sont pas exclues du cadre général de la convention collective en vigueur entre les parties principales; que, d'autre part, le sous-traitant acquiert, entre autres droits, celui de choisir et de rémunérer la main-d'oeuvre en cause, il s'agit alors d'une « concession partielle de l'entreprise » au sens de l'article 36 C.T. impliquant au moins pour les fins de cet article, un « changement de structure juridique de l'entreprise » et la transmission de droits et d'obligations au sens de l'article 36 du Code du Travail quant à la partie de l'exploitation faisant l'objet de la sous-traitance (sous-contrat).
KENNETH G. BAKER, BENOIT TOUSIGNANT, CLAUDE LAVERY, dissidents: Vouloir appliquer les dispositions de l'article 10a (36 C.T.) à des actes juridiques qui ne sont ni une aliénation, ni une concession totale ou partielle de l'entreprise équivaut à extensionner irrégulièrement les termes précis retenus par le législateur, à dépasser l'intention législative et à se substituer illégalement au législateur lui-même.
Le contrat intervenu entre les parties intimées en est un de location d'une grue et de certains camions avec ou sans l'opérateur, le travail à être exécuté était sous la surveillance du locateur. Il n'y a aucun élément dans cette transaction qui constitue un abandon de droit de propriété, qui implique une perte de patrimoine ou qui entraîne un transport de droit.
Il n'y a pas eu, non plus, de concession. Aucune possession, aucun usage d'un domaine, de l'entreprise n'ont été cédés. Ce contrat innommé de location intervenu entre les intimées n'a entraîné au sein de l'une tout aussi bien qu'au sein de l'autre aucune décision, aucune fusion, aucun changement de structure juridique, tel qu'exigé par l'article 10a (36 C.T.) 1
,(1) Le Syndicat national des employés de l'Aluminium d'Arvida Inc., requérant, vs J.-R. Théberge Ltée et Aluminium Company of Canada Ltd (Arvida), intimés; Commission des Relations de Travail du Québec, Dossier 2225-2, Cas T81-A, Montréal, le 14 septembre 1965; Théodore Lespérance, J.D., président, Léo-M. Côté, André Roy, Eucher Corbeil, commissaires; Dissidents: Kenneth G. Baker, Benoit Tousignant, Claude Lavery, commissaires.
John H. G. Crispo
Recensions / Book Reviews
Modern Organizations, par Amitai Etziori, Foundations of Modern Sociology Series, Prentice Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliff, New Jersey, 1964, 120 pp.
Applications of Graph Theory to Group Structure, Claude Flament, Prentice-Hall, Inc., Englewood Cliffs, New Jersey, 1963, 142 pages.
Emplois et gains dans les professions scientifiques et techniques, 1959-1962, Les travailleurs intellectuels : rapport no 14, Hon. Allan MacEachen, George V., Haythorne, Direction de l’economique et des recherches, Ministère du Travail, Ottawa, octobre 1964, 26 pages.
Poor Countries and Authoritarian Rule, Maurice F. Neufeld, New York State School of Industrial and Labor Relations, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1965, 240 pages.
Concentration in the Manufacturing Industries of the United States, Ralph L. Nelson, A Midcentury Report – New Haven and London, Yale University Press, 1963, 288 pages.
L’entreprise et la culture générale, P. Demarne, L. Meyer, J. Quinson, M. Raclot, L. Salleron, Entreprise Moderne d’Édition, 4, rue Combon, Paris, I, 1965, 147 pages
Problems of Employment in Economic Development, International Institute for Labour Studies, Reprinted from International Labour Review, Vol. LXXXIX, no 3, mars 1964, Genève, 75 pages.
Principes de la gestion budgétaire, M. Fuster, Entreprise Moderne d’Édition, Paris, 1965, 134 pages.
Le perfectionnement des cadres en France et aux États-Unis, Pierre Demarne avec la collaboration de Jean-Baptiste Jeener, Entreprise Moderne d’Édition, Paris, 1965, 193 pages.
Plaidoyer pour la grande organisation, Léonard R. Sayles, Entreprise Moderne d’Édition, Paris, 1965, 141 pages.
Profit Sharing in Perspective, B.L. Metzger, Profit Sharing Research Foundation, 1718 Sherman Avenue, Evanston, Illinois, 1964, 158 pages.
Action Research for Management, by William Foote Whyte and Edith L. Hamilton, Richard D. Irwin, Inc., Homewood, Illinois, 1964, 282 pages.
Procedures and Policies of the New York State Labor Relations Board, Kurt L. Hanslowe, Cornell University, Ithaca, New York, 1964, 216 pages.
Agriculture and the Public Interest Toward a New Farm Program, Leon H. Keyserling, Conference on Economic Progress, 1001 Connecticut Avenue, N.W. , Washington 6, D.C., 1965, 123 pages.
An International Comparison of Factor Costs and Factor Use, Bagicha Singh Minhas, North-Holland Publishing Company, Amsterdam, 1963, 124 pages.
Les installations électriques en moyenne tension, J. Boulouvard, Entreprise moderne d’édition, Paris, 1964, 78 pages.
Les apprentis scolarisés, par Robert Schiélé et André Moujaret, dans la Collection « L’Enquête et l’Action », les Éditions ouvrières, Paris, 328 pages.
Tous droits réservés © Département des relations industrielles de l'Université Laval, 1965