How was subsistence livestock linked to architecture and the urban development in the settlement of 17th and 18th century Montreal?
This article argues that landscapes and buildings interact with and accommodate the transformation of livestock products and by-products along various stages; and, that these animal parts contribute to defining urban landscapes. The paper presents a novel analytical framework to study foodscapes, and more particularly meatscapes by way of identifying spaces through which animal parts transited, and by spatially mapping them. It does so via a mixed methodological approach, including researching legal documents, travelers’ notes, databases, historical maps and plans dating back to the French period. Examining processes and spaces involving subsistence livestock, their products and by-products as well as individuals related to their transformation provides a new perspective on how ordinary activities shaped the lives and the spaces in a settlement.
Self-identified feminist restaurants and cafes of the 1970s and 1980s in the United
States and Canada acted as spaces that challenged the status quo around cooking and
consumption through their creation of feminist food. Each restaurant and cafe defined
“feminist food” differently depending on the particular feminist ethics of the restaurant
owners. Depending on the restaurant, making their food feminist revolved around vegetarian
ethics, labour issues, cost, and sourcing of products. By looking at what was included and
banned on these restaurant menus, this article shows the ways that food could be labelled as
feminist. Furthermore, this piece demonstrates how one could assert feminism within a
business dedicated to food—one in which complex relationships with the kitchen can also be
analyzed (the kitchen being often labelled a "traditional" place for women).
This article examines the connections between agriculture, alternative food
movements, and settler colonialism. In particular I examine how settler agriculture and
control of food throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries has been used as a tool of
colonization, and how food sovereignty offers a corrective to the imposition of Western,
colonial, gendered, and racialized foodways. I also explore Indigenous food sovereignty in
North America as a model that honors and reclaims Indigenous foodways and
self-determination, and addresses the alarming rates of food insecurity and diet-related
health issues among Indigenous populations. Following in the footsteps of feminist and
decolonial scholars, I seek to critically analyse the discourses of alternative food
movements to discover how alternative food movements can transform the colonial system
rather than unconsciously perpetuate it. I argue that as settlers working to create
equitable and sustainable food systems we must recognize complicity in colonialism, engage
Indigenous perspectives and narratives, and work to support Indigenous communities seeking
Indigenous food sovereignty and self-determination. To do so requires creating alliances
based on learning about our differences from and with each other, and embracing settler
discomfort as a motivation for change.
Taking everyone by surprise, poutine—an unpretentious Quebecois dish originally made of fries, cheese curds and brown gravy—found its way onto the Canadian State Dinner menu organized by the White House in March 2016. Drawing on my personal relationship with poutine, this paper intends to expose how poutine has managed to enact a form of social mobility. The tasting experience of poutine is first deconstructed through its taste ‘on the tongue’ and its taste as a dynamic social process, to investigate poutine’s palatability and mainstream appeal. Through this tasting analysis, poutine emerges as a new(er) and distinct way to consume food that is increasingly adopted and adapted. A working definition of poutine as a new dish classification label in its own right (just like sandwiches, dumplings, soups, flatbreads or sushi) is proposed. The social mobility of other foods (e.g. lobster, kimchi, garlic, and sushi) is further explored, before discussing how poutine is also connected to a stigma, which weakens the agency of the Quebecois. Using the social identity theory, it appears that Quebecois youth are dismissing this ‘poutine stigma’ through a revaluing approach, which resembles a reappropriation of poutine, not necessarily linguistically (as seen with ‘black’, ‘queer’, or ‘geek’), but rather in a culinary fashion. Coupling poutine’s sociohistorical stigma and its growing Canadization (that is, the presentation, not the consumption per say, of poutine as a Canadian dish), two related situations—the ongoing process of poutine culinary appropriation and the threat of Quebecois cultural absorption by Canadians—are exposed.