International Review of Research in Open and Distributed Learning

Volume 21, Number 3, September 2020

Table of contents (19 articles)


  1. Editorial - Volume 21, Issue 3

Research Articles

  1. Learners’ Perceptions of Online Exams: A Comparative Study in Turkey and Kyrgyzstan
  2. Antecedents of Student Loyalty in Open and Distance Learning Institutions: An Empirical Analysis
  3. Does Delivery Model Matter? The Influence of Course Delivery Model on Teacher Candidates’ Self-Efficacy Beliefs Towards Inclusive Practices
  4. A Meta-Analysis of Scaffolding Effects in Online Learning in Higher Education
  5. The Influence of Successful MOOC Learners’ Self-Regulated Learning Strategies, Self-Efficacy, and Task Value on Their Perceived Effectiveness of a Massive Open Online Course
  6. Applying the Rasch Model to Evaluate the Self-Directed Online Learning Scale (SDOLS) for Graduate Students
  7. An Analysis of Course Characteristics, Learner Characteristics, and Certification Rates in MITx MOOCs
  8. Evaluation of Student Feedback Within a MOOC Using Sentiment Analysis and Target Groups
  9. Promoting Intercultural Competence in a Learning Activity Supported by Virtual Reality Technology
  10. Research Trends in Mobile Learning
  11. Revisiting Textbook Adaption Through Open Educational Resources: An Inquiry into Students’ Emotions
  12. A Qualitative Inquiry of K–12 Teachers’ Experience with Open Educational Practices: Perceived Benefits and Barriers of Implementing Open Educational Resources
  13. Profiles of Online Students and the Impact of Their University Experience
  14. Challenges of Blended Learning in Refugee Camps: When Internet Connectivity Fails, Human Connection Succeeds
  15. Learners’ Discussion Patterns, Perceptions, and Preferences in a Chinese Massive Open Online Course (MOOC)

Literature Reviews

  1. Research Trends in K–12 MOOCs: A Review of the Published Literature

Notes From the Field

  1. Languaging Network Learning: The Emergence of Connectivism in Architectonic Thought
  2. Elements of Open Education: An Invitation to Future Research


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