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The procedures involved in the translation of texts have been widely studied from a linguistic point of view. However, when translation is required not only of written texts alone, but of texts in association with other communication media (image, music, oral sources, etc.), the translator's task is complicated and at the same time constrained by the latter. We introduce in this paper the concept of constrained translation from the point of view of communication theory (as defined by the terminology of Nida "dynamic translation") ; we also deal with the existence of more than one communication channel, the factors of source culture, target culture, "noise", and the role of the translator in this complex process.
Because of his lack of native-speaker intuition for the target language, the thème translator requires of the general bilingual dictionary much more explicit lexical information than does his version counterpart. On the basis of a study of lexical errors made by thème translation students, we examine the weaknesses of the general bilingual dictionary for thème, and relate these to either a non-observance of lexicographic principles, or to a lack of such principles. Finally, we propose three teaching strategies to help thème translation students deal with the general bilingual dictionary.