The advantage of our analysis of the territorial image projected by the citizens of Rennes is that it focuses on a territory pursuing unusual objectives. While Rennes is both dynamic, in good health demographically, and deemed to be a pleasant place to live, it projects an official image as extensively as a city in crisis. The primary focus of its extra-territorial image is local; from a European perspective, this image is confronted with performativity. In the search for a global image, bolstered by the interplay of solely public actors, the metropolization of Rennes is sustained by recourse to public initiatives. But is metropolitan governance concerning questions of image really making headway? Is it not detrimental to cooperation with other territories? Symbolically, even though Rennes appears to be following the trend of the urban market through the construction of ideologies fuelled by the spirit of the times, it still strives to assume a trailblazing role in the extension of its image as an innovative city.
Our objective in this article is to analyze the role of metaphor in the
construction of the geographical imagination as reflected by Jules Verne's Twenty
Thousand Leagues Under the Sea. The novelist uses this rhetorical figure in a variety
of ways, bridging two worlds generally thought to be diametrically opposed –the earth and
the sea. Following in the wake of Michel Roux's analysis (2000), which depicts Verne's novel
as emblematic of the “losed world paradigm” we show that through the use of metaphor, which
underpins this evocation of a magical, fantastic world, Twenty Thousand Leagues Under
the Sea is highly representative of the “orld lines paradigm.”
The aim of this article on spatial familiarity is to measure to what extent the location representing an individual's living space and his cognitive map are familiar to him. Based on a study by Gale, Golledge, Halperin and Couclelis (1990), it explores the spatial familiarity of the inhabitants of two suburban municipalities north of Liège (Belgium); questions the links between the different cognitive dimensions (the visual, the nominal and the localization dimensions), and the behavioural, or passing, dimension; investigates new reference locations for the populations of these suburban spaces, including the factors conducive to a high degree of familiarity with given locations; and lastly, analyzes the influence of inhabitant mobility –length of residence, daily commutes and travel options –on spatial familiarity.
American-style New Urbanism (NU) has been the subject of numerous articles and books, all expressing viewpoints significantly divergent from one another. For some, NU is a marker of urban and social fragmentation, particularly in gated communities: others see this marker as a planning strategy in search of an alternative to the traditional housing complex, which is based on the detached garden-ringed house and is largely responsible for urban sprawl. This article opts for the second interpretation in the form of an analysis centred on urban compactness and the revitalization of public space neighbourhoods –an intention appropriated by the NU Charter and recognized by the resident population. It concludes that the effects of the logic intrinsic to the property market should be distinguished from the intentionality of professional practices and inhabitant representations, in order to interpret the NU and to reflect on sustainable urban development.
Private local government and public local government are often contrasted. This article shows that this contrast is not always well-founded empirically. Municipalities and home-owners associations in France and the United States have functional roles that share much in common. In both countries, small municipalities provide the inhabitants of suburban homes with an opportunity to maintain strict control over their territory. Local exclusivity is certainly not the prerogative of gated communities. In light of these observations, we propose to transcend the public/private dichotomy, on which a good many analyses are based, by harnessing the concept of club.
The residential model of the gated community, or secured residential enclave (SRE), is expanding at an increasing rate in the cities of a very wide number of countries, regardless of their continent. In Montreal, the SRE as defined in its strictest sense is a very rare, practically nonexistent form, although there are grounds for questioning whether certain elements unique to or closely associated with this residential model are currently validated by the developers of new residential properties. In response to this question, we have carried out analyses of recent advertizing discourse related to the new residential developments of Greater Montreal. Our investigation of the content of this kind of advertizing shows that no explicit reference is made to the SRE model and neither is there any mention of closure or restricted access. As to the privatization of services or utilities, they appear in many advertisements but their offerings are very trivial and include mainly swimming-pools, physical-fitness rooms and terraces –utilities that might be found in a single-family detached house. It is therefore hard to talk about substituting collective solidarity for a form of solidarity based on residential community! The elements tied to SREs, like security or the retreat to the residential community, continue to play a marginal role in advertizing. Moreover, elements such as the proximity of downtown Montreal and the public and private utilities accessible to everyone, as well integration into a specific district or city, are highly present –indicating the importance of the close environment for potential buyers. In conclusion, our investigation of advertizing discourse shows that values running counter to those values subjacent to the SRE model (e.g. demonstrating openness to the outside world and an obvious preference for public utilities) are easily dominant.
Large residential complexes mushroom on city outskirts, as Viêt Nam enters an accelerated rate of urbanization. The “ew urban zones”are causing sociospatial and socioeconomic fragmentation, while some foreign researchers compare these new suburban zones to “gated communities” and criticize the perverse effects of privatization, commodification, and securitization –central concepts in the literature on neoliberalization. This theoretical framework seems inappropriate for Viêt Nam, even if criticism of the negative aspects of this urbanization model continues to be a necessity. Rooted in studies on two new urban zones on the periphery of Hanoi City, this article analyzes sociospatial and socioeconomic fragmentation at three phases of their life cycle; namely, conceptualization and funding, construction and realization, as well as everyday living practices. This approach casts light on the many “eweaving”and negotiating practices linking the new zones and neighbouring districts; and finally, it identifies the real causes of urban fragmentation: the principles of modernist planning and property speculation.