After a fifty year career entirely devoted to statistical linguistics, the author attempts to establish a report on this discipline, at least for the French area. He first seeks to evoke the raw intitiatives that involve among other names Guiraud, Quemada Gougenheim, Tournier and Muller. Then he follows the evolution of methods which tend to move away from the inferential model advocated by Muller to adopt a descriptive approach where the analysis is based on multidimensional calculations. Passing from the calculator on the computer software tool developed its power on big size corpus, some of which are subject to particular scrutiny: the BNF, Frantext, SketchEngine and finally Google Books. The size of this last project - which is almost 100 billion words for the French production of the last two centuries - may make you dizzy judgment without erasing doubt, the composition of the corpus, uneven and uncertain, distorting the timeline. It is concluded that the blinding evidence of a graphic result should not impose on the reason. The effect can be massive, and the cause obscure. The lexicometry spread much surface; he must also gain depth.
This article presents the results of a comparative study on media narratives of the « Armenian massacre » and « German atrocities » in the French Canadian press during the Great War. What are the specificities of these events’ narratives pertaining to the definition and qualification of crimes perpetrated against the civilian population ? The use of computerized text data tools allowed us to process 1,172 newspaper articles in order to identify and compare the terms used to inscribe the « German atrocities » committed on civilians on the Western front in 1914 and the « Armenian massacre » in the Ottoman Empire in 1915-1916. This comparative analysis of acts of extreme violence against civilian populations should supports our hypothesis that contemporaries understood the systematic, intentional, and radical character of crimes being committed by Ottoman authorities against the Armenian population.
This article aims to examine French representations of Russian combatants between 1914 and 1919 through a sample taken from the French illustrated press. More precisely, it will trace the evolution of the denominations and qualifications of Russian combatants from an historic and linguistic standpoint, within the context of French war propaganda during the First World War. We will thus analyze both the permanence and evolution of these representations. Our corpus is made up of a systematic selection of articles taken from three illustrated French publications during the period chosen: L’Illustration, Je sais tout, and Le Petit journal’s illustrated Sunday supplement.
This article examines the treatment of the tragic events of September 11th, 2001 by French-language newspapers in Canada. The Canadian population expressed a strong need to understand these events, and the Canadian media responded by publishing a number of informative and analytical articles in an effort to comprehend the magnitude of a tragedy which resonated around the world. By searching for the expression « 11 septembre » between September 11th, 2001 and September 12th, 2002 in Le Devoir, Le Soleil, La Presse, L’Acadie Nouvelle, Le Droit and La Liberté, newspapers that represent the main francophone regions of the country, we located and extracted 158 articles on the topic. This comprehensive corpus was then examined using text analysis software to produce a lexical and thematic analysis of the representations of these events in the French-language Canadian press.
The Armenian community in diaspora has been struggling for more than half a century to have the genocide perpetrated against Armenians by the Ottoman Empire in 1915-1916 recognized. This crime has been largely ignored due to the Turkish policy of institutionalized denial and the indifference of the international community. Our paper examines the political and symbolic dynamics at work in the representation by the Quebec media of the demand by the Armenian community in Quebec for recognition of the Armenian genocide. More specifically, we analyse representation of the memory of the Armenian genocide in two Quebec newspapers, Le Devoir and La Presse, from the earliest instance of the demand for recognition in the 1960s to the end of the 1990s. Our analysis of the press corpus was done using innovative computerised textual data analysis tools.
The following article presents a mythocritical research realised through the use of
the Hyperbase program, on some of the many discourses of the acadian national
congresses (conventions nationales acadiennes), from 1881 to 1937. The goal is to understand
how and why France is represented so frequently in the speeches and to determine the role
these references play in the nationalist Acadian discourse during the period. The hypothesis
of the research as well as their verifications were conducted following the great
possibilities of the Hyperbase program, by using both statistical and documentary
This article analyzes the functions and motivations of literary code-switching and code-mixing in ten contemporary heterolingual novels. A microanalysis is followed by a more general typology. Thousands of instances of code-switching or mixing were coded according to form and function variables using a grid provided by software program Sphinx-Eurêka. A cross-referencing of these variables revealed the main characteristics of each novel, which led to a typology of heterolingual writing at the end of the 20th century. This typology places the the ten novels along the levels of a three-part pyramid. At the base is a “realistic” or mimetic approach which, doubled with irony, becomes parody, and finally, at the top, is the creative approach.
The genealogy of the synoptic gospels is still of current interest. Different hypotheses exist regarding the similarities or the repetition of entire texts from one gospel to the next among the 3 gospels according to Matthew, Mark, and Luke. A team of Japanese researchers has identified all the segments common to these three gospel authors and has built a contingency table describing their similarities. A statistical Analysis of the contingency table calculated from the synoptic gospels is done by taxicab correspondence analysis (TCA). TCA produced stable and interpretable results, from which we deduced a variant of two gospel hypothesis.
Given the changes and constant mutations which occur in societies at the social,
political, economic, technological, and educational levels, the concept of citizenship must
be continually redefined. While French-speaking citizens, immigrants and members of the host
society can find common ground thanks to the French language, they can also find differences
because of other characteristics linked to their identity, such as culture, ethnic
background, religion, and history. This is why we must analyze the meaning that these groups
give to the concepts of citizenship and citizen participation, interpreting the differences
and similarities that surface in their discourse regarding these two concepts. The use of
computerized tools and statistics has enabled us to find-through a constant comparison
between qualitative and quantitative analyses-the perceptions, similarities, and divergences
in the discourse of four groups of participants involved in our study: immigrant youth,
immigrant parents, host society youth, and host society parents.
Any language is subject to the dynamics created by the tension between two opposing trends: the diversification trend and the trend towards standardization. The tension resulting from these two movements is the driving trend of the evolution of a language (Schogt, 1968; Breton, 1996; Calvet, and 1981). The French spoken in Acadian New Brunswick is increasingly torn between these two contradictory forces of standardization and regionalization. Our interest is the description of the equilibrium point between these two tendencies, the description of the current state of the evolution of spoken French in Acadia of New Brunswick, the description of the spoken French in formal situations, which we call here the "Acadian French standard". From interviews conducted during a survey of young cadres of Francophone businesses at university level in three urban centers in New Brunswick (Moncton, Bathurst, Edmundston), we identified the traits of variation that we analyzed and categorized.
The author Régine Robin explores and exploits all the possibilities of cyberspace
on her website titled Papiers perdus (lost papers), which is split between academic
life and creative prose. On the creative side of Papiers perdus, 106 fragments of
texts varying in length are organized in five sections and their content is suggested by
constraints expressed by the author on her home page. Despite this illusion of order, the
author encourages the reader to reconstitute these texts in any order they see fit without
any guidance on her part. To create meaningful relationships between these fragments of
cybertext without resorting to a linear reading, this article turns to the theory of
postmodern cartography, which is a manner by which manifested subjective space can be
understood as a means to access and create new paths of meaning through the postmodern world
(Jones, 2007). Specifically, with the help of the software Hyperbase, I will analyze the
semantic constellations which create networks of meaning through the Association
This article is proposed as an original study on the application of the methods of textual data analysis to musical corpus. In modern musicology, the musical oktoechos of the charagan repertoire of the Armenian liturgical chant has never been described in detail. This repertoire is organized in an oktoechos (eight modes) system. In its present state, some twenty musical modes seem to have been classified by convention in a symbolic system of oktoechos. This fact gives each of the oktoechos modes the character of a mode family rather than a precise single mode. In this article, we are presenting the first stage of the description of six different versions of 42 chants belonging to the same mode and same melody-type. A total of 728 verses, divided into phrase units, are analysed with Sphinx application program. Our analysis with Sphinx allows us to show the specificities of different versions, degrees, as well as proper motifs of initial, median and final formulae of different versions of these songs. The analysis also permits to reveal characteristic formulae suits of sharakan phrases, and the environment created by different intervals which constitute this mode.
The use of the verb “aller” (‘to go’) in regional french often differs from standard French, including different contexts of use and particular forms of the verb. Our project has two goals: first, to find the different morphosyntaxic contexts of the verb “aller” in Acadian French spoken in New Brunswick, using INTEX programs; second to integrate the results into software dictionaries following the methodological framework developed by Maurice Gross of the LADL. This work represents the first stage in a larger project to develop an electronic dictionary of Acadian French with INTEX. In this paper we will present the different graphic forms of the verb that were found in the oral and written corpora and also the graphs built for the description of the morphosyntax of the word. Finally we will present the dictionary of frozen expressions with the verb “aller” found in our corpora.
Automated analysis of oral corpora is still in its infancy. Interest is growing,
but tools are still scarce. This paper presents processing tools that we have developed to
analyze corpora of spontaneous oral speech in Acadian French. This variety of French spoken
in the Maritime Provinces of Canada has three levels of characteristics: oral, regional, and
mixed language traits. The challenge was to adapt an existing processing tool,
NooJ, to find solutions to the problems presented by our corpora. We will present
three different solutions developed with NooJ: (1) the configuration of dictionary
entries that allows users to relate the orthographic and lexical representations of a word
coming from standard French, traditional Acadian, English, or the vernacular; (2) grammars
developed to process the morphological characteristics of nominal and verbal inflections;
and (3) a disambiguation graph for the ambiguous form a, which is the 3SG pronoun
in Acadian French as well as the 3SG.PRES of the auxiliary avoir.