Managing editor(s): Philippe Maubant / Editor(s): Yves Couturier (Rédacteur en chef), Richard Wittorski (Rédacteur en chef adjoint)



The international scientific journal Phronesis examines issues relating to the professionalization of “support occupations” that are focused on other people, in other words, occupations whose interactive dimension makes them difficult to study. The aim of Phronesis is to promote the advancement of knowledge on these issues, as well as to foster reflection and critical debate on related subjects. The journal’s intent is to study these occupations and their professionalization from the standpoint of major social questions and stakes; from theoretical and conceptual standpoints that seek to shed light on ideological, political, historical and cultural dimensions; and from a methodological standpoint, specifically by presenting and discussing the results of empirical research. Phronesis is not science, but rather judgment and discernment; in this sense, it is at the heart of these occupations. It is the intellectual virtue that allows human beings to properly assess singular situations, and is consequently situated in the field of practice. Above all, it enables deliberation about a singular situation (providing care, teaching, etc.) with a view to supporting rational choices.

As a result, one of the objectives targeted within and through professionalization is work. The scientific contributions published in this journal propose to situate the question of work, the question of these occupations’ activity, and the question of professional practices as cornerstones in the issue of professionalization. The research and other scholarly texts published in Phronesis address the support occupations across a variety of sectors, including school-based and non-formal education, adult education, health and social work professions, advisory and assistance professions, etc. The objective is to present research from an array of disciplinary backgrounds in order to describe and understand various professional contexts, the territories where these professions are exercised, analysis of situation-based work activity, practices developed in training and work situations, professional training policies, and methods and processes involved in learning, employment integration and professional development. In sum, Phronesis strives to advance the knowledge on pathways, processes, situations and conditions for professionalization within support occupations.


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Editorial policy and ethics

Editorial Policy

Phronesis is an international scientific journal devoted to the field of professionalization, particularly within “support occupations,” or occupations that are focused on other people. These education, care and advisory occupations, among others, are characterized by their relational nature; their activities are geared toward the production of services rather than goods. These activities share certain features, which are most often studied from a monodisciplinary perspective. In its approach to these many occupations, Phronesis is by contrast a resolutely interdisciplinary journal. The research it presents deals with these occupations’ learning approaches and their implementation, with various service activities, and with occupational objects. Far from being inert, these objects “react,” thereby situating the support occupations within the dynamic of a professional-client/beneficiary co-production. As a result, the activities that take place (involving “activities on the activities of others”) cannot be based on the sole expertise of one individual but rather involve a concern to vary and adapt action within a situation.

As a result, the relational occupations, probably more so than others, are subject to strong pressure, especially from institutional sources, to continually adapt their activities. This gives rise to a debate between “institutionalization” (the institutional definition of activity) and the “professionalization” of activity (the professional group’s definition and ownership of activity), in a context where the processes for promoting, designing and implementing training and/or work methods come under an intent to professionalize individuals within organizations or institutions. These methods and programs explicitly target the development of competencies and professional qualities that enable the social “production of professionals”; in other words, they target processes that will professionally develop individuals confronted with training and/or work situations. Indeed, individuals develop their learning and construct their professional identities in these situations, based on the idea that professionalization consists not only in the institutional offering of a method or program, but also in the often informal dynamic of learning that plays out within the work situation.

Overview of the journal, the editorial policy and its strategic direction

Traditional scientific research in the area of training and professionalization has fairly widely concentrated on industrial activities (for example, the sociology of work) and, only more recently and to a lesser extent, on human-related activities. The purpose of this journal is precisely to better understand the issues and forms of professionalization involved in human-related occupations, which are sometimes referred to as “support occupations.” The journal’s intent is first and foremost to promote the dissemination of new information attuned with the conceptual evolution taking place in the way such occupations are analyzed. In addition to presenting original research, the journal serves as a platform for debating related theoretical and conceptual questions with a view to fostering innovation.  In this spirit, Phronesis is open to suggestions in the way of academic articles based on empirical investigation, but also theoretical texts, which may be the subject of special issues.

Background, mandate and current theme

Fundamentally speaking, the guiding theme of Phronesis emerged from a new way to conceive the analysis of support occupations, prompted by the emergence of interdisciplinarity, activity theories and situationist approaches. The journal has examined related issues since 2010 in the context of research activities led by the University of Sherbrooke’s Research Institute on Educational Practices, University Institute of Geriatrics, and International Monitoring Network on Professionalization. From its inception, the journal has therefore been located in a resolutely international perspective.

Authors Guidelines

Definitive versions of texts must comply with the style sheet provided here. Texts that do not comply with the style sheet will be returned to their authors.

Definitive versions of texts must also be accompanied with a signed “assignment of copyright” form available in English here.


Current evaluation procedures for each issue

The coordinators of the issue will submit all proposed articles to three researchers for external evaluation. In the event of disagreement between reviewers, a fourth evaluation may be sought. The reviewers will evaluate articles submitted to them using the Phronesis evaluation grid available here in English.

Author Guidelines – General presentation rules

1. Formatting:

- Texts must be in Word format only (PC or Mac).

- Texts should follow American Psychological Association (APA) style, adapted in French in accordance with prevailing linguistic standards.

- Each chapter must contain fewer than 60,000 characters (including spaces).

- Texts must be single spaced.

- Text font must be Minion Pro (size 10) or Times New Roman (size 10).


2. Presentation of figures and tables: 

- A maximum of three tables are permitted per article. Individual table size should not exceed one page.

- Likewise, a maximum of three figures and diagrams are permitted per article. They must be submitted in .jpeg, .tiff, .pdf or .png format.

- Authors must indicate the respective locations of diagrams, tables, figures, charts, etc. to insert. All such graphical elements must be appended along with any instructions required in order to compose the documents in question.


3. Heading levels 

- Three heading levels are permitted.

- Headings and subheadings must be numbered in order to clarify text levels (e.g., 1., 1.1., 1.1.1.).


4. Wrinting format :

- Italics should be used only for foreign words and book titles.

- Bold should be used only for headings and subheadings.


5. Writing of numbers:

- Numbers from 0 to 10 (inclusive) should always be spelled out, whether they appear at the start of a sentence or not.

- Numbers from 11 and above should be written in numerals (digits) within a sentence; at the start of the sentence, however, they should be spelled out.

- In the case of an enumartion involving several categories and using different numbers within the same sentence, all numbers should be written in numerals.

- Numbers below zero, fractions, ratios and percentages should always be written in numerals.


6. In-text quotation and bibliographical references must follow APA style, 6th edition 

Publication Ethics Statement


Editorial team’s responsibilities

  • To act in a balanced, objective and fair way while carrying out their expected duties, without discrimination on grounds of gender, sexual orientation, religious or political beliefs, ethnic or geographical origin of the authors.
  • To handle submissions for sponsored supplements or special issues in the same way as other submissions, so that articles are considered and accepted solely on their academic merit and without any influence.
  • To adopt and follow reasonable procedures in the event of complaints of an ethical or conflict nature, in accordance with the policies and procedures of the University of Sherbrooke where appropriate. To give authors a reasonable opportunity to respond to any complaints. All complaints should be investigated no matter when the original publication was approved. Documentation associated with any such complaints should be retained.
  • No sponsored paper will be accepted

Reviewers’ responsibilities

  • To contribute to the decision-making process, and to assist in improving the quality of the published paper by reviewing the manuscript objectively, in a timely manne
  • To maintain the confidentiality of any information supplied by the editor or author. To not retain or copy the manuscript.
  • To alert the editor to any published or submitted content that is substantially similar to that under review.
  • To be aware of any potential conflicts of interest (financial, institutional, collaborative or other relationships between the reviewer and author)
  • To alert the editor to these, if necessary withdrawing their services for that manuscript.

Authors’ responsibilities

  • To maintain accurate records of data associated with their submitted manuscript, and to supply or provide access to these data, on reasonable request from the editor, reviewers or readers. Where appropriate and where allowed by employer, funding body and others who might have an interest, to deposit data in a suitable repository or storage location, for sharing and further use by others.
  • To confirm/assert that the manuscript as submitted is not under consideration or accepted for publication elsewhere. Where portions of the content overlap with published or submitted content, to acknowledge and cite those sources. Additionally, to provide the editor with a copy of any submitted manuscript that might contain overlapping or closely related content.
  • To confirm that all the work in the submitted manuscript is original and to acknowledge and cite content reproduced from other sources. To obtain permission to reproduce any content from other sources.
  • Authors should ensure that any studies involving human or animal subjects conform to national, local and institutional laws and requirements and confirm that approval has been sought and obtained where appropriate. Authors should obtain express permission from human subjects and respect their privacy.
  • To declare any potential conflicts of interest (e.g. where the author has a competing interest (real or apparent) that could be considered or viewed as exerting an undue influence on his or her duties at any stage during the publication process).
  • To notify promptly the journal editor or publisher if a significant error in their publication is identified. To cooperate with the editor and publisher to publish an erratum, addendum, corrigendum notice, or to retract the paper, where this is deemed necessary.


  • University of Sherbrooke which it publishes shall ensure that good practice is maintained to the standards outlined above.
  • For all electronic database distributing Phronesis, more detailed ethical procedures will be set out and brought to the attention of Journal editors and editorial boards.

2. Procedures for dealing with unethical behaviour 

Identification of unethical behaviour

  • Misconduct and unethical behaviour may be identified and brought to the attention of the editor and publisher at any time, by anyone.
  • Misconduct and unethical behaviour may include, but need not be limited to, examples as outlined above.
  • Whoever informs the editor or publisher of such conduct should provide sufficient information and evidence in order for an investigation to be initiated. All allegations should be taken seriously and treated in the same way, until a successful decision or conclusion is reached.
  • Investigation
    An initial decision should be taken by the editor, who should consult with or seek advice from the publisher, if appropriate.
    Evidence should be gathered, while avoiding spreading any allegations beyond those who need to know.


    • Minor breaches
      Minor misconduct might be dealt with without the need to consult more widely. In any event, the author should be given the opportunity to respond to any allegations.
    • Serious breaches
      Serious misconduct might require that University of Sherbrooke be notified. The editorial team, in consultation with the University of Sherbrooke as appropriate, should make the decision whether or not to involve the scientific comitee, either by examining the available evidence themselves or by further consultation with a limited number of experts.
  • Outcomes (in increasing order of severity; may be applied separately or in conjunction)


Digital preservation policy

Phronesis is permanently archived on Portico.

Editorial board

Editorial Team



Philippe Maubant, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Editorial Chief 1

Yves Couturier, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Editorial Chief 2:

Richard Wittorski, Université de Rouen, France

Editorial Manager:

Lucie Roger, Université du Québec à Montréal, Canada et Université de Nantes, France

Membres of Editorial Team:

Jean Clénet, Université de Lille 1, France

Jean-François Desbiens, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

François Gitzhofer, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Thierry Piot, Université de Caen, France


Scientific Comitee

Abernot, Yvan, Ecole nationale de formation agronomique, Toulouse, France

Alhadeff-Jones, Michel,  Columbia University, New York, États-Unis

Altet, Marguerite, Université de Nantes, France

Arbos Bertran, Albert, Université internationale de Catalogne, Barcelone, Espagne

Aubry, François, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Bank, Volker, Technische Universität, Chemnitz, Allemagne

Barbier, Jean-Marie, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France

Berger, Guy, Université Paris 8, France

Boudjaoui, Mehdi, Université de Lille 1, France

Bourassa, BrunoUniversité Laval, Canada

Bourgeois, Étienne, Université de Genève, Suisse

Brémaud, Loïc, Univeristé de Rennes 2, France

Buysse, Alexandre, Université Laval, Québec, Canada

Calvo Puig, Pedro, Université internationale de Catalogne, Barcelone, Espagne

Chouinard, Isabelle, Université du Québec en Abitibi-Témiscamingue, Canada

Christou, Theodore, Queen's University, Kingston, Canada

Clénet, JeanUniversité de Lille 1, France

Coiduras, Jordi, Université de Lleida, Espagne

De Ketele, Jean-Marie, Université de Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgique

Demazière, Didier, Sciences-Po Paris, France

Derobertmasure, Antoine, Université de Mons, Belgique

Desbiens, Jean-François, Uinversité de Sherbrooke, Canada

Dillon, David, Université McGill, Montréal, Canada

Étienne, Richard, Université de Montpellier 3, France

Falkenberg, Thomas, Université of Manitoba, Winnipeg, Canada

Faulx, Daniel, Université de Liège, Belgique

Fillietaz, Laurent, Université de Genève, Suisse

Fourdrignier, Marc, Université de Reims-Champagne-Ardennes, France

Gitzhofer, François, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Groux, Dominique, Université Antille-Guyanne, France

Hébrard, Pierre, Université de Montpellier 3, France

Helmchen, Jürgen, Université de Münster, Allemagne

Houssaye, Jean, Université de Rouen, France

Jaeger, Marcel, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France

Jorro, Anne, Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers, Paris, France

Kaddouri, Mokhtar, Université de Lille 1, France

Lantheaume, Françoise, Université de Lyon 2, France

Lapostolle, Guy, Université de Bourgogne, Dijon, France

Lejeune, Michel, École Polytechnique de Montréal et  Institut national de recherche scientifique, Montréal, Canada

Mabilon-Bonfils, Béatrice, Université de Cergy-Pontoise, France

Marcel, Jean-FrançoisUniversité de Toulouse 2, France

Martineau, Stéphane, Université du Québec à Trois- Rivières, Canada

Marquet, Pascal, Université de Strasbourg, France

Mayen, Patrick, AGROSUP, Dijon, France

Moldoveanu, Mirela, Unuversité du Québec à Montréal, Canada

Morissette, Joëlle, Université de Montréal, Canada

Morin, Paul, Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Olry, Paul, AGROSUP, Dijon, France

Osty, FlorenceCNRS/CNAM, Sciences-Po, Paris, France

Pagoni, Maria, Université de Lille 3, France

Perez-Roux, Thérèse, Université de Montpellier 3, France

Piot, ThierryUniversité de Caen- Basse Normandie, France

Plaisance, Éric, Université Paris-Descartes, France

Poizat, Denis, Université de Lyon 2, France

Pudelko, Béatrice, Télé-Université du Québec, Canada

Raveleau, Benoît, Université Catholique de l'Ouest, Angers, France

Remoussenard, Patricia, Université de Lille 3, France

Rinaudo, Jean-Luc, Université de Rouen, France

Robin, Jean-Yves, Unuversité Catholique de l'Ouest, Angers, France

Roquet, Pascal, Université de Montpellier 3, France

Silva, Anna Maria, Université de Minho, Braga, Portugal

Sonntag, Michel, Institut national de sciences appliquées, Strasbourg, France

Vanhulle, SabineUniversité de Genève, Suisse

Veillard, Laurent, Institut français d'éducation, Lyon, France

Vinatier, Isabelle, Université de Nantes, France

Wallet, Jacques, Université de Rouen, France

Wittorski, Richard, Université de Rouen, Rouen, France

Xypas, Constantin, Université Catholique de l'Ouest, Angers, France

Zouari, Yassine, Institut supérieur des Beaux-Arts, Tunis, Tunisie



Comité de lecture 2013

Alava, Séraphin; ESPÉ Toulouse

Aubry, François; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Bourassa, Bruno; Université Laval, Canada

Buysse, Alexandre; Université Laval, Canada

Chalmel, Loïc; Université de Haute-Alsace, France

Clénet, Jean; Université de Lille I, France

Correa Molina, Enrique; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Couturier, Yves; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Desbiens, Jean-François; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Dumet, Thomas; Université de Lille I, France

Étienne, Richard; Université de Montpellier 3, France

Faulx, Daniel; Université de Liège, Belgique

Fraysse, Bernard; Université de Toulouse II, France

Gervais, Colette; Université de Montréal, Canada

Groux, Dominique; Université Catholique de Paris, France

Guttierez, Laurent; Université de Rouen, France

Hébrard, Pierre; Université de Montpellier 3, France

Heimberg, Charles; Université de Genève, Suisse

Houssaye, Jean; Université de Rouen, France

Jean-François Marcel; Université de Toulouse II, France

Joël Clanet; Université de la Réunion, France

Jorro, Anne; CNAM, Paris, France

Kahn, sabine; Université libre de Bruxelles, Belgique

Kalubi, Jean-Claude; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Kristine Balslev; Université de Genève, Suisse

Lapostolle, guy; Université de Bourgogne, France

Larivée, Serge; Université de Montréal, Canada

Le Goff, Jean-Louis; Université de Rouen, France

Leclerc, Gilles; Université de Lille 1, France

Levasseur, Louis; Université Laval, Canada

Marquet, Pascal; Université de Strasbourg, France

Martineau, Stéphane; Université du Québec à Trois-Rivières, Canada

Maubant, Philippe; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Mohib, Najoua; Université de Strasbourg, France

Morin, Marie-France; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Olry, Paul; Agro-sup, Dijon, France

Osty, Florence; CNAM, Paris, France

Piot, Thierry; Université de Caen, France

Poizat, Denis; Université de Lyon, France

Pudelko, Béatrice; TÉLUQ, Canada

Remoussenard, Patricia; Université de Lille III, France

Restrepo, Gerardo; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Roger, Lucie; Université de Nantes, France

Roquet, Pascal; Université de Montpellier 3, France

Thomas, Lynn; Université de Sherbrooke, Canada

Tominska, Édyta; Université de Genève, Suisse

Trouvé, Alain; Université de Rouen, France

Vanhulle, Sabine; Université de Genève, Suisse

Vincent, Hubert; Université de Rouen, France

Wallet, Jacques; Université de Rouen, France, AUF

Wittorski, Richard; ESPE Rouen, France